Agri genomics is the study of genetically engineered plants and livestock and how genes impact productivity. The use of genomics in agriculture provides for more sustainable animal production as well as agricultural output and productivity. The resolution of the next-generation sequencing allows researchers to investigate the transmission patterns of infectious diseases through time, which leads to the development of effective medication.
Rapid advances in functional genomics, such as the use of massively parallel sequencing technology and the development of techniques to efficiently analyse cellular activity at the molecular level, are propelling the worldwide Agri genomics market. When it comes to applied genomics in agriculture, molecular marker-assisted crop breeding has proved to be more effective than traditional breeding programmes in terms of increasing crop selection scope, speed, and efficiency.
The development of genome analysis techniques is expected to result in a transition from traditional animal breeding to genomic selection. The availability of next-generation sequencers has allowed researchers to swiftly and effectively identify single nucleotide polymorphisms linked with economically significant phenotypic characteristics and assess the breeding value (EBV) of young animals at an earlier stage.
Pest infestations on crops are becoming a major concern for farmers all over the world. Pests destroy 10-15% of the world’s crops each year. Furthermore, the pests are growing, making them more difficult to eradicate. As a result, the desire to fortify crops and enhance their endurance is a significant driving force in the Agri genomics market. Adoption of automated approaches in Agri genomics research has been limited due to budgetary constraints, compared to other disciplines such as human genetics.
The rapid expansion is seen owing to the exponential increase in population, rise in crop and livestock demand, government initiatives to support research and improve crop productivity, and surge in demand for genomic databases by livestock breeders. Technological advancements in sequencer systems, including as the development of high-throughput systems and increased automation, contribute to market growth. Furthermore, the decrease in sequencing cost and the reduction in time required for nucleic acid sequencing drive market growth. Furthermore, because of the precision of the data, sequencing is becoming increasingly popular.
Researchers have enhanced their use of genotyping and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to investigate a wide range of agricultural species and acquire a better knowledge of the genetic diversity that influences phenotypes. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technologies are speeding development because they are cost-effective and offer sophisticated capabilities like as multiplexing. Gene editing, in reality, is democratising the development of modified plants. Not only is the technology being used by major, established firms like Syngenta, Bayer, BASF, and Corteva, but it is also fuelling the growth of tiny startups like Calyxt and Pairwise Plants.
With a highly effective, high speed all-in-one process, MGI’s DNBSEQTM sequencing technology and platforms are enabling breakthroughs in molecular breeding and advancing basic scientific research in agriculture.
In response, MGI developed its own molecular breeding strategy that speeds up the entire process and includes sample pre-processing, library preparation, sequencing, and bioinformation analysis.
To start, a manual sample transfer technique that is time-consuming and prone to error typically characterises the initial stages of a molecular breeding effort. The breeding sample pre-processing efficiency is significantly increased by MGI’s automated sample processing devices.
For instance, the MGISTP-7000 High-Throughout Automated Sample Transfer Processing System can transfer 192 samples in 40 minutes from screw cap transport tubes to 96-Well Microplates. In comparison to manual handling, it can boost efficiency by three to four times and readily handle large-scale sample transfers despite a lack of labour.
In the meantime, batches of samples can be processed using the MGISP-960 High-Throughput Automated Sample Preparation System, which eliminates the need for repetitive manual tasks, improves the stability of NGS library preparation, lowers overall costs, and significantly increases the laboratory’s overall work efficiency.
The technique can simplify DNA extraction from 96 samples and the development of a PCR-free WGS library in molecular breeding applications in a total of five hours.
The Global Agri Genomics Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The goal of current seed-coating technology is to evenly apply a diverse variety of active components (ingredients) onto agricultural seeds at specified doses, therefore facilitating sowing and improving crop performance. There are three primary types of seed treating/coating equipment: dry powder applicators, rotating pans, and pelleting pans, all of which may apply dry powders, liquids, or a mix of the two. Dry coating, seed dressing, film coating, encrustments, and seed pelleting are other words for coatings generated by this type of machinery. The seed weight increases for these various coating techniques range from 0.05 percent to >5000 percent (a 100-fold increase).
The Latest Technology has been the active components which are used with an objective to preserve and improve seed and seedling performance in terms of germination, growth, and development. The active ingredient’s method of action determines its function in protection and/or augmentation. Seed protectants are the most often utilised class of chemicals for managing diseases and pests during sowing.
Active components must be put to seeds so that they stick to the seeds throughout storage and until they are planted. Furthermore, pesticide-treated seeds must be easily identified as such. Colorants are often employed to show that seeds have been treated and account for around 60% of coating ingredient components; in the case of seed pelleting, colourants are applied at the conclusion of the coating process.
Dry powder application is a seed coating process in which seeds are mixed with a dry powder. This application method was previously known as “planter box” therapy. Dry powders, also known as dusts, are used for fungal or bacterial treatments that are then dried (hydration/dehydration), whereas seeds have a shorter shelf-life following application. This technique may be used on-farm for the administration of labelled pest control products.
Industry invests much in research and development in the larger field of seed treatments, and most of this technology is private. Many biological seed treatments are being researched and commercialized for use as pesticides and bio stimulants. However, it is beyond the scope of this book to critically evaluate the qualities and efficacy of these biologicals, despite the fact that they are commercially employed.
Thermo Fisher Scientific is one of the pioneering organization involved in development towards better innovations in genotyping requirements. It has recently brough in the genome sequencing requirements into the market, which permits researchers to learn about the genetic makeup of plants and animals, as well as identify new vital indicators for agricultural research. Advances in Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing are simplifying and lowering the cost of sequencing, whether for genome sequencing, exome, transcriptome, or targeted resequencing applications.
The integrated suite of next-generation solutions, which includes the Ion Gene Studio S5 equipment and the Ion Chef System, delivers accurate results at an industry-leading speed and cost.
Affymetrix Solutions is moving through the development of specific genotyping solution which is focused on better and robust technology integration under the growing advancement.
The Axiom Genotyping Solution for Agri genomics includes arrays with genotype-tested content from the Axiom® Genomic Database or de novo markers. In addition, Affymetrix has collaborated with scientists from academic research institutes and commercial seed companies to design arrays for a variety of plants including potato, soybean, strawberry, wheat, maize, and ornamental plants.
The Axiom® workflow provides automated genotype-calling software, eliminating tedious manual genotype assignment. The latest addition of the Axiom my Design custom genotyping technology enables the design of SNP genotyping arrays for complex mosaic genomes, such as those of salmon
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