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Older fixed-displacement oil pumps worked irrespective of the engine speed, external weather and the viscosity of oil. The older pumps used to consume lot of space and the excess pressure created during the peak performance went wasted.
Variable displacement pump varies accordingly to match the pressure and volume of the conditions. These conditions can include engine temperature, loads and engine speeds.
Among the IC engine powered cars to achieve high fuel efficiency and among BEVs and PHEVs to enhance the overall performance of the vehicle pumps play an important role in various vehicle systems. Fuel efficiency wise these pumps improve 3-5%, although this number appear to be less, but these are appreciable improvement. Also, these pumps increase the power to the wheels.
Variable displacement oil pumps are of two common designs, the “gerotor” (generated rotor) or the vane style.
Bosch offers the variable oil pump in different versions, such as oil pan design, compact front design and engine cover design.
In a vane-type pump a set of vanes generates a flow that are free to move radially within a slotted rotor that rotates in an elliptical housing. A typical configuration uses an elliptical cam ring, with the rotor spinning in a cylindrical housing and a pair of side plates to form the pumping chambers. The changing volume of the cavity between adjacent vanes creates the pumping action as the rotor rotates. GM’s 1400 cc turbocharged engine relies on this principle.
Almost every variable displacement oil pump application is mounted on the crankshaft. This particular position of pump eliminates the requirement for an intermediary shaft. These pumps have trochoid gears that allow for smooth operation, low noise and excellent suction. changes the rotating axis of the outer gear. The inner gears are mounted on the crankshaft which drives the outer annular gears. Since the inner and outer rotors have different rotating axes, more space is created on the suction side due to the rotating motion.
Most variable displacement oil pumps use an electric solenoid to change the axis and vary the rotation of pump housing. This position is determined by ECU. Changing the geometry of the housing changes the amount of pressure and volume of the pump.
Oil pressure sensors on most variable displacement oil pump systems are positioned in the oil galley between the main bearings and the head. Apart from reading the pressure in the pump, these sensors send the nominal pressure reading of the entire system.
Variable displacement pumps also reduce or eliminate the need for pressure reducing valves and flow control
The crucial factor restraining the growth of the variable displacement pumps market is its high cost as compared to the other pumps. It is observed that the variable displacement pumps are 5 to 6 times costlier than the traditional fixed oil pumps.
OEMs are trying to discover ways to reduce energy loss of engine attachments, which will be an effective measure in the near future.
Bosch variable oil pump is based on the multi-vane principle. Its design enables displacement adjustment, in such way the oil pressure level can be freely regulated within a defined pressure range.
In 2017, Toyota Camry was fitted with the Aisin Group’s continuously variable discharge oil pump. It was the then the first product to be equipped with internal gear. The product was estimated to be smaller by 25% and lighter by 33% than the previous version of the same model.
The production of these components is concentrated mostly in Asia-Pacific region followed by North America.
In April 2021, Atos unveiled its new global R&D center located in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, Commune region of France.
In April 2018, Texas Hydraulics, a portfolio company of Wynnchurch Capital completed the acquisition of Oilgear Company.
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