Global Backhoe Loader Market 2024-2030

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    1. The Backhoe Loader market accounts for ~7% market share in total sales of construction equipment  industry globally.
    2. India is the largest market for backhoe loaders which accounts for almost 50 per cent of all construction equipment sales in unit terms.
    3. In China, from January to December 2020, a total of 131,176 loaders of various types were sold, which had an increase of 6.12% year-on-year.
    4. Although the outbreak of COVID-19 has already impacted the construction equipment industry, the impact on backhoe loaders is much less. Overall, the backhoe loader market industry will close this year with growth.
    5. The thrust on infrastructure development continues to be a priority for the countries. Manufacturers are optimistic about a rapid recovery of the economy.
    6. The Indian government has announced measures to revive the construction sector. Building 34,800 km of national highways in five years and more projects in the Rs 111-trillion ($ 1.49T)National Infrastructure Pipeline are expected to boost construction and infrastructure development in the country.
    7. Indian Government’s  ‘Build India’ initiative is about to gain momentum to counter the economic slowdown. The road construction activity remains the largest driver of construction equipment (CE) demand with execution reaching record high levels of 13,327 km in FY2021, up 30% on a YoY basis despite challenges from the Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns.
    8. The U.S Department of Commerce recently announced that construction projects put into place and annualized for 2021 amount to more than $1.5 trillion.
    9. Caterpillar and Volvo Construction Machinery offer rental agreements on these machines which enable smaller companies to utilise the use of latest innovations.
    10. Liebherr announced the launch of new wheel loaders named the L 586 XPower series.
    11. JC Bamford has developed an innovative software system known as the JCB LiveLink which helps in the management of JCB machines.
    12. Caterpillar announced the acquisition of the Carbon Point Solutions to provide the technology to capture and concentrate carbon dioxide emissions by engines and turbines.




    Rapidly growing rate of the earth moving machines is assured through the high performance construction machinery with complex mechanisms and automation of construction activity.


    infographic: Backhoe Loader Market , Backhoe Loader Market Size, Backhoe Loader Market Trends, Backhoe Loader Market Forecast, Backhoe Loader Market Risks, Backhoe Loader Market Report, Backhoe Loader Market Share


    The backhoe loader market in a country is driven by sectors such roads, real estate, rural infrastructure, urban development, irrigation, agricultural activities, and industrial performance, which will be supported by the macro economic situation, policy and reforms, and availability of funds.




    Backhoe Loader Market By Application Type

    1. Construction
    2. Mining
    3. Others


    Backhoe Loader Market By Region

    1. U.S
    2. Europe
    3. China
    4. India
    5. Rest of the World




    SI No Timeline Company Developments
    1 December 2021 Hyundai Construction Equipment Hyundai CE has invested $170 million in order to expand the production capacity of Ulsan Factory by 50%.
    2 December 2021 Caterpillar  Caterpillar has signed a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) with BNSF Railway Company and Chevron USA Inc in order to improve the locomotive powered by hydrogen fuel cells.
    3 December 2021 IVECO IVECO, the commercial vehicle brand of CNH Industrial, has been partnered with Air Liquide in order to develop hydrogen heavy-duty mobility in Europe.
    4 November 2021 Liebherr  Liebherr-Australia has decided to open a new branch in Kalgoorlie. 
    5 September 2021 Liugong Liugong has partnered with LG Machinery in order to open a new branch in Kazan.
    6 September 2021 Liebherr Liebherr has started constructing a new component plant in China for the production of bearings, drives and hydraulic cylinders for the Chinese market.
    7 July 2021 SANY SANY has opened a new branch in Scotland covering an area of 2000 square meters.
    8 April 2021 Hitachi Construction Machinery Hitachi has established a new parts remanufacturing plant in Southeast Asia for the development of medium to large-sized hydraulic excavators.


    Backhoe loader market continue to offer end-users the kind of versatility that leads to solid utilization rates in many applications, and manufacturers continually refine their products with features designed to help reign-in operating costs.


    The medium and small-sized construction companies across the globe now prefer to rent construction equipment on a monthly basis rather than pay huge amounts for their investment. Using construction equipment such as backhoe loader market, excavators help contractors and construction companies to minimise the initial investment costs for their projects.


    The major manufacturers such as Caterpillar and Volvo Construction Machinery offer rental agreements on these machines which enable smaller companies to utilise the use of latest innovations as well as the capital for the initial investment can be diverted to be used towards better allocation of resources aiding in business expansion.


    Recently launched Backhoe Loader Market are built by  pioneering the integration of digital technology with construction equipment. All the machines are equipped with world-class remote monitoring telematics technology.


    Which helps in the remote monitoring and fleet management on the key parameters of Service, Operations and Security. The technology now helps machines communicate real time on its location, operations, performance, downtime, service alerts and security.


    infographic: Backhoe Loader Market , Backhoe Loader Market Size, Backhoe Loader Market Trends, Backhoe Loader Market Forecast, Backhoe Loader Market Risks, Backhoe Loader Market Report, Backhoe Loader Market Share


    The overall industry now tends to shift to virtual interaction. Technology-driven companies are now taking the help of the virtual interface more. Working towards creating a more trouble-free machine and a system to provide remote assistance to the customers.


    Sales teams are now having virtual IDs and accessibilities in order to converse with sales prospects. Various Apps are being created to simplify sales and service process


    With customers’ profit margins under pressure, manufacturers are striving to make owning and operating their machines financially viable during the current lean period. But as demand improves, competition is likely to become more intense – and so will marketing.


    In fact, an aggressive marketing plan by manufacturers augurs well for the infra sector as it will broaden the range of product offerings and make prices more competitive. It will also strengthen the pre- and post-sales customer support and service packages of the manufacturers to beat competition.


    Larsen & Toubro (L&T) has agreed to distribute Kemroc’s cutting-edge equipment in India. Kemroc is a global maker of attachments for excavators and backhoe loaders.


    The contract covers Kemroc-developed specific attachments, such as its revolutionary EK chain cutters. These chain cutters have revolutionised rock trenching and are widely used around the world, especially in India.


    Larsen & Toubro and Kemroc, a global manufacturer of excavator and backhoe loader attachments, have signed a distribution agreement that will allow L&T to distribute and promote Kemroc products in the Indian market.


    Kemroc has created a new line of high-performance chain cutters, drum cutters, cutter wheels, pile cutters, trenchers, patch planners, and drilling augurs for trench excavation and other applications.






    SL No Models
    1 JCB 2DX & 3DX ecoXcellence
    2 CASE 770 EX SERIES
    4 ACE AX 124




    SL No Models
    1 JCB 3CX
    3 LINGONG B877
    4 LINGONG CLG766
    5 XGMA XG765 E


    infographic: Backhoe Loader Market, Backhoe Loader Market Size, Backhoe Loader Market Trends, Backhoe Loader Market Forecast, Backhoe Loader Market Risks, Backhoe Loader Market Report, Backhoe Loader Market Share



    SI No Timeline Company Developments
    1 November 2021 New Holland New Holland has released the Economy Class Backhoe, the B75D. It delivers 74 gross horsepower and over 18 feet of maximum digging depth and with four wheel drive.
    2 October 2021 SANY America SANY America has launched the new backhoe loader, the SLB95 to North America for greater power and versatility.
    3 October 2021 JCB JCB has decided to launch a new hydrogen-powered backhoe loader which will be available for delivery at the end of 2022.
    4 September 2021 Case Construction Case Construction has launched the new backhoe loader SV series. The SV series has a new FPT stage V engine and with an increase in performance.
    5 September 2021 JCB JCB has revealed the new 3DX backhoe loader. There will be three new models in the 3DX range: the 3DX ECO, 3DX PULS, and 3DX PRO. The 3DX ECO will have 56kW Engine and the remaining two models will have 68.6 kW Engines. 
    6 September 2021 Caterpillar Caterpillar and Gmmco have combined to launch the all-new Cat 424 backhoe loader.
    7 April 2021 JCB  JCB has launched the new 55kW 3CX ECO backhoe loader which possesses EU Stage V complaint Engine.
    8 March 2021 Mecalac Mecalac Construction has launched the new sideshift backhoe loader TLB880 with Stage V Engine which delivers 74.5kW power and 430 Nm of torque.


    • Liebherr announced the launch of new wheel loaders named the L 586 XPower series.
      • The machines operate on low fuel consumption levels with high performance in the load and carry operations, they can move up to 12 tonnes of product per loading cycle.
    • Caterpillar Incorporation announced the launch of the new Cat 424B2 backhoe loader which offers efficient hydraulics, low maintenance, high performance, durability as well as higher efficiency.


    The John Deere developed, battery-powered, electric vehicle design–referred to as E-Power backhoe. The design is intended to provide substantially lower daily operating costs, lower job site noise, enhanced machine reliability, and zero emissions. John Deere is in early Phase I development of its electric backhoe.


    Case 580 EV electric backhoe loader Market is powered by a 480-volt, 90-kW, lithium-ion battery pack (weighing 1,300 pounds) that can be charged in eight hours by any 220-volt/three-phase connection. A single battery charge will support most eight-hour workdays.


    The battery separately powers the drivetrain and hydraulic motors, resulting in hydraulic breakout forces equal to diesel-powered machines and improved performance during simultaneous loader and drivetrain operation.


    Swedish construction equipment manufacturer Huddig is claiming to have the first commercially available diesel-electric hybrid backhoe loader on the market. The Tigon has 30% more power than its diesel counterpart and can run entirely on electricity or fossil-free on HVO 100 diesel.


    New Holland Agriculture has introduced the D-Series backhoe loader, which boasts improved fuel efficiency. The new F36 3.6-litre four-cylinder engine produces 82 kW and 460 Nm of power and torque.


    To meet the severe Stage V emissions criteria, the Hi-eSCR2 after treatment system employs a low-rate EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), and DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter).


    The SCR incorporates a maintenance-free filtering device, which has the combined benefits of preserving the after-modest treatment’s size, assuring maximum uptime, and having no impact on the machine’s design and visibility.


    The standard Eco Mode increases machine efficiency by automatically regulating engine speed and hydraulic pressure in all tasks that do not demand prolonged speed and power, saving up to 10% on fuel.




    The company JC Bamford has developed an innovative software system known as the JCB LiveLink which helps in the management of JCB machines remotely by email or mobile phone. With the help of the application, the customer can access machine alerts to fuel, travel history as well as all the data stored at the secured centre.


    Machines today include features such as pressure-compensated load-sensing (PCLS) hydraulics which provides better multifunctioning, smoother machine control and up to 15% greater digging capacity with Lift Mode, collectively providing a distinctive customer experience and enhanced machine reliability.


    John Deere’s backhoe loaders have also evolved into the electrification realm. The company has begun testing its electric backhoe loader with National Grid. The Deere E-Power backhoe loader market targets the performance of a 100 hp, but with zero tailpipe emissions.


    EV retains features of diesel-powered Case backhoes, such as ProControl, which allows for precise boom movement and placement, as well as Comfort Steer, which improves steering while working in tight quarters or in truck-loading operations.


    The machine also employs the new enhanced joystick controls used in the most recent generation of Case N Series backhoes, as well as in-cab amenities, such as premium seat options and Bluetooth radio. The 580 EV also incorporates the Case SiteWatch telematics system.


    infographic: Backhoe Loader Market, Backhoe Loader Market Size, Backhoe Loader Market Trends, Backhoe Loader Market Forecast, Backhoe Loader Market Risks, Backhoe Loader Market Report, Backhoe Loader Market Share


    Danish-based developer Unicontrol has launched a 3D machine control system for backhoe loader market. The Unicontrol 3D system has been developed on the basis of user involvement and process analyses of the workflow that applies in the construction industry. The solution is suitable for machines with a derrick, swivel arm and bucket that are fitted with sensors.


    Backhoe Loader Market Engine Specs of Backhoe Loaders, By Region

    Regions Power Displacement Torque
    U.S 74 – 150 H.P 2.4 – 4.5L 300 – 570 Nm
    Europe 97 – 121 H.P 3.4 – 4.4L 433 – 516 Nm
    India 49.5 – 96 H.P 3.2 – 4.8L 203 – 408 Nm




    The Global Backhoe Loader market is estimated at $XX Billion in 2024, growing at XX% CAGR till 2030.




    The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the economy across the globe disrupting manufacturing activities due to lockdown and pandemic protocols. The construction industry has also been impacted severely by the pandemic which includes the contractors, manufacturers of equipment, developers as well as supply chain vendors who supply raw materials.


    The transportation of raw materials and equipment for construction activities is the primary service on which an infrastructure project depends, due to the lockdown and pandemic protocols transportation slowed down which caused delays in the delivery and further cancellation of construction projects. These reasons have plunged the demand for construction equipment and the manufacture of new technologies and heavy-duty vehicles.


    The revenue of the companies manufacturing construction equipment also suffered due to low demand. For instance, the Liebherr Group recorded sales worth EUR 10,341 million in the year 2020 which was a 12% decline from the sales of the year 2019.


    The company Caterpillar recorded sales and revenue worth $41.7 billion in the year 2020 which was a 22% decline from the year 2019 which recorded sales and revenue worth $53.8 billion. However, the department for construction equipment recorded revenue worth $16.9 billion which was due to weaker than estimated demand and sales primarily in North America.


    infographic: Backhoe Loader Market, Backhoe Loader Market Size, Backhoe Loader Market Trends, Backhoe Loader Market Forecast, Backhoe Loader Market Risks, Backhoe Loader Market Report, Backhoe Loader Market Share





    At ConExpo, Case introduced five new backhoe loaders.  Due to the continued shortage of trained labour in North America, there is a growing industrial demand for multipurpose machinery, which has rekindled interest in backhoe loaders.


    By offering the new Rock-Solid Guarantee on the Case 580 SV, which includes a competitive lease payment, a thorough warranty, and an exclusive option at 12 months to continue the remainder of the lease or walk away with no further obligation, the Racine, Wisconsin-based construction equipment company is embracing increased demand for backhoes. This gives contractors and business owners confidence.


    This innovative new solution from Case provides a very business-friendly method to develop capacities and invest in new equipment with complete peace of mind, while also addressing practical earthmoving needs.


    The Case Rock-Solid Guarantee offers a 36-month lease through CNH Industrial Capital, which also has offices in Racine, for 1,000 hours per year.


    In addition to an extended powertrain purchase protection plan that offers powertrain protection for 36 months or 3,000 hours, whichever comes first, the programme also includes a one-year full machine warranty.


    The business owner is entitled to an additional 12 months or 1,000 hours of powertrain protection if the lease is converted to a purchase at the conclusion of the term.


    A clause included in the Rock-Solid Guarantee also enables the contractor or business owner to terminate the lease after 12 months if unhappy.


    They can return [the Case] machine and collaborate with their dealer to switch to another machine if, at the conclusion of the first year, they decide that another machine would better suit their needs.


    Anyone who wants to get into the next great Case digger loader and turn it into a top performer in their fleet for years to come should take advantage of this fantastic opportunity.


    For businesses that use the loader end of their backhoe as their primary material handler for loading and unloading pallets and moving pipe and other bundled material around the yard or transfer station, Case says the 580SV Construction is ideal. It brings a tool carrier-style front end back to the Case backhoe line in North America.


    A hydraulic fast coupler makes it simple to convert the 580SV into a multi-purpose machine by adding a 4-in-1 bucket, 6-in-1 bucket, or any of the many attachments available for Case backhoes. The North American market now has access to the new centre pivot model. A side-shift model will be released by Case.




    Escorts Reveals India’s First Hybrid Tractor & Backhoe Loader With Pure Electric Mode.Escorts has showcased India’s first hybrid tractor, hybrid backhoe loader and multi-utility backhoe loader. Escorts revealed the three new vehicles at Exclusive which is the company’s annual innovation showcase platform.


    India’s first hybrid cars can run on both battery and diesel power. Many automakers have embraced hybrid drivetrains as one of their strategies for creating cleaner, greener cars. Hybrids were developed at a time when pure electric vehicles lacked the necessary range and pure petrol or diesel vehicles produced too many emissions.


    As the bulk of the globe has not yet adopted electric vehicles, although some manufacturers claim that pure electric vehicles now have the necessary range.


    However, India is way behind the curve in terms of green vehicle usage. While some countries in Europe and America have made the transition to hybrid commercial cars, India is just getting started.


    Escorts is the pioneer in this case, with its hybrid tractor and hybrid jcb loader. The Escorts Farmtrac hybrid tractor in question is a 4-wheel-drive type with a horsepower rating of 70-75.


    Despite being in the 70–75 HP range, the tractor’s hybrid drivetrain allows it to be increased to 90 HP. It has four modes of operation, each of which allows for the independent utilisation of electric and diesel power for propulsion.


    The hybrid mode enables customers to operate the tractor using both battery power and the diesel engine. ICE The only source of power in direct mode is the diesel engine. In battery-electric mode, the diesel engine is turned off and the vehicle is powered solely by its batteries.


    The batteries can be charged using a wall socket in plug-in mode. This tractor can operate as a pure-electric vehicle if one chooses to just use the battery electric mode in conjunction with the plug-in mode. Escorts’ jcb loader exhibits comparable driving modes as well, albeit with less power and more functionality.


    The 50HP diesel engine of the Escorts hybrid jcb loader may be increased to 75BHP by using the battery and electric motor.


    It has three drive modes: electric excavator, ICE direct drive, and hybrid. The operation of the ICE Direct-Drive and Hybrid modes is identical to that of the hybrid tractor. The backhoe loader may operate exclusively on electricity when using the Electric Excavator mode.


    The machine, however, cannot be operated entirely electrically. Both the tractor and the backhoe loader have regenerative charging systems, which use the engine’s extra idle power to charge the battery pack.


    The Rider, which the business claims to be India’s first multi-utility rural transport vehicle, was also on display. It provides an optional 4WD drivetrain and a payload carrying capability of 750 kilograms.




    SI No Timeline Company Sales
    1 Q3-2021 Caterpillar At the end of the third quarter the sales and revenue of Caterpillar was $12.4 billion and in 2020 the sales and revenue was $9.9 billion.
    2 Q3-2021 CNH Industrial The revenue of CNH at the end of the third quarter was $7.9 billion and in 2020 the revenue was $6.49 billion.
    3 Q2-FY 2022 Escorts Group After three months ended in September, the company reported a revenue of Rs 1,662 crores and in the previous year the revenue was Rs 1,639 crores.
    4 Q2-2021 Komatsu At the end of second quarter the net sales of Komatsu was ¥110.3 billion and in 2020 the net sales was ¥106.7 billion.
    5 November 2021 CNH Industrial CNH has completed the acquisition of Raven industries which is a leader in precision agriculture technology.
    6 September 2021 Caterpillar Caterpillar has acquired Carbon Point Solutions which is a carbon capture technology company.
    7 July 2021 Caterpillar Caterpillar has successfully acquired the Oil & Gas Division of the Weir Group PLC for the production of pumps, flow iron wellhead and pressure control products.
    8 January 2021 CNH Industrial CNH Industrial has concluded a deal to acquire the four businesses from CEG in South Africa.


    JCB’s new Stage V compliant 3CX ECO backhoe loader provides improved operator comfort and ease of use, as well as increased productivity and a reduced total cost of ownership. The backhoe loader is powered by the latest version of JCB’s 3.0 L diesel engine. It provides 55 kW (73.8 hp) of power and 440 Nm (324.5 ft.-lb.) of torque, which is a 10% increase over the previous model.


    Liebherr, which is the largest company manufacturing construction and mining equipment, has entered into an agreement with ABB, the leader of automation and electrification.


    The two companies have signed a memorandum of agreement according to which they will develop solutions for the electrification of construction and mining equipment to reduce greenhouse gases and emissions associated with using heavy machines. 


    The company has also partnered with Hexagon to deliver the next generation software and autonomous technology for construction and mine automation.


    The company released its report for the fiscal year 2021 which reported a total sales of EUR 10,341 million which was a decline of 12% representing EUR 1,409 million declines for the sales reported for the fiscal year 2020. The company also invested about EUR 512 million in the research and development department with the main focus on the development of new products and technologies. 


    John Deere has upgraded its popular L-Series backhoe loaders, unveiling significant machine improvements designed to boost productivity, maximize uptime and reduce operating costs.


    Ranging across the L-Series Backhoe lineup, the updates, which include engine upgrades, new pressure-compensated load-sensing (PCLS) hydraulics on the 310SL model and machine control improvements, enhance operation and machine performance.


    Hitachi Construction Machinery announced in August 2021, that they have dissolved the joint venture alliance with Deere, the construction machinery giant.


    Upon the dissolution of the agreement from March 2022, the company will be able to provide new products and technologies directly to customers through an independent dealer network across north, central and south America.


    The company recently announced the financial results for the first quarter of the fiscal year 2022 with revenue worth $2.08 billion which was a 34.1% increase from the revenue recorded for the same term last year worth $1.5 billion.


    Komatsu Europe announced the WB97R-8, the latest model in Komatsu’s new range of backhoe loaders. Packed with customer-focused features, the WB97R-8 offers two-wheel steering and a powershift transmission, a high level of standard specifications and unrivalled operator visibility thanks to Komatsu’s unique combination of a lateral exhaust pipe and compact bonnet.


    Caterpillar has replaced F2 Series backhoe loaders with new models using the nomenclature without suffixes. Models 415, 416, 420, 420 XE and 430 use a new engine, the Cat C3.6, that is up to 10% more fuel-efficient. Four-wheel drive is now standard, with no 2WD versions available in North America, and the IT version has been eliminated, with all new models able to use an IT coupler.


    Caterpillar announced the acquisition of the Enhanced Energy Group which has started to operate as Carbon Point Solutions. It is a company based in the US that provides the technology to capture and concentrate carbon dioxide emissions by engines and turbines.


    The company announced a collaboration with Rio Tinto, a mining company to develop zero-emission site solutions to help Rio Tinto achieve the goal of net-zero carbon emissions by the year 2050.


    They recently announced the financial results for the second quarter of the year 2021 with sales and revenue worth $12.9 billion which was an increase of 29% from the revenue of the same term last year which reported $10 billion.


    Volvo construction recently released the financial statement for the second quarter of the year 2021 with the total net sales worth $2.9 billion which was a 13% increase from the results of the same quarter of 2020 worth $2.6 billion.


    Mecalac Construction Equipment has completed its range of sideshift backhoe loaders with the launch of its new Stage V compliant TLB880 model. The heavy-duty sideshift model had been designed to provide fast cycle times and precise operation. It incorporates a closed-centre hydraulics system that delivers a maximum flow rate of 143l/min and operating pressure of 250 bar.


    JCB India Ltd has launched its new range of CEV Stage IV Backhoe Loaders. The range entails the new 3DX Plus, the 3DX Xtra, the 3DX Super & the 4DX to meet a wide range of applications for customers. The new Backhoe Loader range is powered by the 55kW JCB ecoMax diesel engine.


    This CEV Stage IV engine is environment friendly and comes with well-proven CRDI technology, a Waste-Gate Turbocharger & a Two-Stage cooling EGR system.


    The engine has a state-of-the-art combustion system that eliminates the need for any After-treatment, DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) or a DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter).



    1. Backhoe loader market size and Forecast, by region, by application
    2. Average B-2-B price for backhoe loader market, by region, per user
    3. Technology trends and related opportunity for new backhoe loader market tech suppliers
    4. Backhoe loader market share of leading vendors, by region,
    5. Coronavirus impact on backhoe loader market earnings
    1 Market Segmentation
    2 Scope of the report
    3 Abbreviations
    4 Research Methodology
    5 Executive Summary
    6 Introduction
    7 Insights from Industry stakeholders
    8 Cost breakdown of Product by sub-components and average profit margin
    9 Disruptive innovation in the Industry
    10 Technology trends in the Industry
    11 Consumer trends in the industry
    12 Recent Production Milestones
    13 Component Manufacturing in US, EU and China
    14 COVID-19 impact on overall market
    15 COVID-19 impact on Production of components
    16 COVID-19 impact on Point of sale
    17 Market Segmentation, Dynamics and Forecast by Geography, 2023-2030
    18 Market Segmentation, Dynamics and Forecast by Product Type, 2023-2030
    19 Market Segmentation, Dynamics and Forecast by Application, 2023-2030
    20 Market Segmentation, Dynamics and Forecast by End use, 2023-2030
    21 Product installation rate by OEM, 2023
    22 Incline/Decline in Average B-2-B selling price in past 5 years
    23 Competition from substitute products
    24 Gross margin and average profitability of suppliers
    25 New product development in past 12 months
    26 M&A in past 12 months
    27 Growth strategy of leading players
    28 Market share of vendors, 2023
    29 Company Profiles
    30 Unmet needs and opportunity for new suppliers
    31 Conclusion
    32 Appendix
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