The phenomenon of producing photons as electrons return from the excited state to the ground state during a chemical reaction is known as chemiluminescence (CL), and it has become a commonly utilised photon emission-based analytical tool.
The most notable benefit of CL over conventional detection methods is the great sensitivity that results from not requiring an external light source. As a result, CL can increase the linear dynamic range, increase SNR, and decrease light scattering.
Several CL substrates have been discovered in addition to luminol, including acridinium ester, peroxyoxalate, dioxetane, and their derivatives.
With the advancement of CL systems and high-resolution, advanced analytical tools such photomultiplier tubes and charge-coupled devices.
Slow-scan For steady-state CL signals with a strong quantum impact, CCD detectors are appropriate. Cryogenic freezing technology, meanwhile, can improve SNR and minimise noise.
High sensitivity in CL detection is also provided by enhanced CCD and imaging photon detectors. The application of CL imaging is currently expanding due to the commercial development of CCD devices with high sensitivity and high resolution.
As the quantities of the samples are considerably reduced, it is simple to monitor photon signals in microarrays to perform simultaneous analysis of multicomponent substances.
As of today, a variety of analytes in the field of biochemical analysis have been detected using CL imaging technology, including nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, small biological molecules, and even organisms.
The Global Chemiluminescence imaging market accounted for $XX Billion in 2023 and is anticipated to reach $XX Billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of XX% from 2024 to 2030.
Practical and high-resolution optical imaging methods have been created to monitor the various in vivo activities, such as tumour growth, medicine administration, and pathogen changes.
In vivo CL imaging is particularly important for testing animal and cell models and for real-time physiology and pathological process monitoring.
The study on CL imaging will be further developed, and the current constraints, like the accuracy of target localization, will be overcome, thanks to the ongoing progress of novel CL materials and optical detecting technologies.
Certain significant physiological and pathological processes in living systems cannot be tracked because of the limited tissue penetration and short timeliness of in vivo CL imaging models, especially in deep tissues.
In contrast, over the past ten years, bioluminescence (BL) imaging has grown to become one of the most widely used noninvasive in vivo techniques.
In living things without an excitation source, enzymatic reactions that convert chemical energy into light produce blue light (BL). Luciferase catalyses the oxidation of the substrate in a normal BL reaction (e.g., luciferin).
Many luciferases have been utilised in BL systems thus far, and several of them are capable of providing detailed images of cells and tissues.
CL and BL are both well-known photon emission-based detection techniques. These techniques have the advantage of not requiring an external light source and of avoiding photobleaching, background interference, and autoluminescence.
Hence, excellent sensitivity and broad applicability ranges have been attained by CL and BL. The in vitro and in vivo uses of CL and BL imaging technologies are discussed in this review.
Although there have been some reviews of CL and BL imaging published in the past, the majority of them were on in vitro CL imaging tests based on conventional CL systems as well as in vivo BL imaging utilising typical luciferase-luciferin pairings.
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