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Lubricants are necessary in today’s world. The use of specialised oils and greases ensures that car engines and gearboxes work smoothly. Lubricants are extraordinary fluids.
Regardless of the weather, the engine oil must function properly at temperatures ranging from -40 °C to above 250 °C — the temperature near the top piston ring. It must also deal with pressures ranging from 105 to 109 pascals, as well as impurities such as metal particles and soot.
Lubricants provide the critical functions of controlling friction and wear in the engine, protecting the engine from rusting, cooling the pistons, and protecting the engine oil stored in the sump from combustion fumes.
A base oil – a mineral oil that has come directly from a refinery – makes up around 75-95 percent of a standard engine lubricant.
These basic oils can contain straight or branching hydrocarbon chains naturally, hydrocarbon molecules with phenyl ring attached, or these chains can be created by subsequent biochemical processes of the base oils.
Lubricants are classified into two types: monograde and multigrade, based on whether or not their viscosity changes considerably with temperature.
Additives are chemical substances that are added to lubricating oils to give them special qualities. Some additives provide new and valuable qualities to the lubricant; others improve existing properties; and still others slow the rate at which undesired changes occur in the product over its service life.
Additives have substantially contributed in the creation of better prime movers and industrial machines by increasing the performance characteristics of lubricating oils.
To know more about Commercial Vehicle Engine oil Market, read our report
Automobile manufacturers made great efforts to improve overall energy efficiency and eliminate harmful emissions. To meet these objectives, non-traditional engine technologies with higher efficiency and regulated emission systems were introduced to the market.
Numerous additional supporting technologies, such as biofuels and newly better lubricants, were also involved in contributing to the advancement of vehicle engine systems.
The problem of friction and wear, which is inbred in automobile applications, raises environmental dangers through increased fuel use and wear debris.
Effective lubrication of the automobile’s related components is essential for smooth sliding over each other and to reduce friction and wear in order to reduce emissions and energy losses from the engine.
The market dynamics have recently shifted toward electric mobility, including the demand of lubricating fuel in these commercial electric cars. The correct sealing technique for a fully integrated electric powertrain is critical to the future success of electric transportation.
Lubricants and seals are usually in close proximity. Both are components of a tribological system, and their mutual compatibility is required for both to work well.
Based on ionic liquids, a new lubricant idea is being applied in the commercial viability of electric cars. This innovative, patented design converts the lubricant into a lightning conductor, preventing dangerous potentials from building.
This new generation of specialty lubricants tackles the issue of electric conductivity in addition to vehicle-relevant data such as rpm, smooth operation, and prolonged service life.
In the current context of IC Engine-based vehicular propulsion, it can be seen that lubrication is achieved by various approaches and penetration with the use of extra materials.
As extra functional aspects, this aids in increasing efficiency. In commercial vehicle engines, smaller molecular weight hydrocarbons with 12 to 50 carbon atoms are employed.
They are frequently used because they are inexpensive, plentiful, and stable under service circumstances. However, because mineral oils have a lower oiliness, the addition of larger molecular weight molecules such as oleic acid and stearic acid enhances the oiliness of mineral oil.
Mineral oil-based lubricants are widely used in the market today, as are fixed oils with defined volumetric percentages of animal, vegetable, and fish oil inclusions, lubricating oil and fluids, soluble oils and compounds, semi liquid, and plastic lubricants.
The Global Market of Commercial Vehicle Lubricant can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
Improving environmental friendliness, dependability, durability, and energy efficiency is a major focus in the car industry.
New approaches are being developed, such as the introduction of new lightweight materials that are less damaging, as well as regulated combustion of fuels and effective lubrication that regulates the environmental problems caused by automobiles.
Effective lubrication of the automobile’s related components is essential for smooth sliding over each other and to reduce wear and friction in order to reduce emissions and energy losses from the engine. To overcome these difficulties and to create new opportunities,
The use of lubricants as a cooling function within the vehicular population and operating mechanism has been brought about by new technologies and the integration of material sciences.
The majority of lubricants manufactured do not have all of the tribological qualities. It was discovered that several additives are employed in conjunction with lubricants to increase their tribological qualities.
Nanoparticles are a relatively new kind of lubricant additive. It is caused by colloidal solid particles in the lubricating oil. The lubricant/base oil, nano additive, and surfactant are the three primary components of nano lubricants.
Nano-additives in lubricating oil increase the anti-wear characteristics, severe pressure properties, and friction properties of the lubricants.
The most synthetic option for these lubricants is Polyalphaolefins, which is a synthetic oil manufactured from linear paraffin and has higher performance when compared to mineral base oils, but its capacity to absorb additives is limited due to its well-defined molecular structure.
Esters or naphthenic base oils are frequently added to PAOs base oils to increase the additive solvency of the PAOs base oils. Recently, the potential of polymer-based additives in base oil systems has been introduced.
A little quantity of this polymer can be dissolved in the base oil, causing it to agglomerate on the bearing surfaces and produce a continuous quasi-static coating.
This film is an order of magnitude thicker than the base lubricant’s residual viscous boundary layer. This is referred to as matching molecular chemistry (MMC).
Petronas Lubricants International (PLI) launched the new Urania engine oil, for both commercial and heavy duty trucks. During the condition when the trucks are loaded heavy, Petronas Urania delivers core strength to the trucks and commercial vehicles that leads to proper survival of the vehicle.
Millers Lubricants, a UK-based independent lubricant company, has introduced a new line of commercial vehicle engine oils designed for a variety of heavy-duty vehicles. Millers Oils’ major brands, Truckmaster and Multifleet, utilize cutting-edge technologies in new and existing heavy-duty vehicles.
Millers Oils developed and blended Dynamic Fluid Technology, a unique, improved lubricating technology used in the Truckmaster series. Dynamic Fluid Technology employs the most cutting-edge additive technologies, which work together to maximize protection and performance.
Engines are most vulnerable to damage and wear during the start-up period, and current driving circumstances compound this vulnerability — sitting in heavy traffic and repeatedly stopping and starting the engine can shorten engine life. Dynamic Fluid Technology counteracts these consequences by utilizing the surface chemistry of molecules to produce a dynamic protective layer over all engine component surfaces, thereby protecting the engine.
Current engine lubricants are responsible for decreasing engine friction losses and contact wear in internal combustion engines (ICE). As a result, the influence of engine oil viscosity and ageing on the global movement of passenger automobiles and commercial vehicles is of particular importance.
The oil in an engine is its lifeblood, and all of these innovations are pushing the needs for oil to new heights. Fortunately, sufficient access to the best oil technology has resulted in the development of a breakthrough technique for converting natural gas, an exceedingly clean and consistent commodity, into an extremely pure base oil.
Shell’s Pure Plus technology yields a 99.9 percent pure final product, allowing the oil to operate better than before and withstand the rigorous needs of contemporary automobiles.
It works well in both hot and cold temperatures, preserves components, and can withstand lengthy periods between oil changes.
Concentration has lately been given to electric vehicle makers on hydro lubricants incorporating water as a base oil, which demonstrate very reduced friction and an increased cooling effect.
When compared to traditional lubricants, the lubricant can help to improve the travel range of electric cars and lower gearbox temperature by up to 17 °C. Engineers have additional possibilities for vehicle design now that the temperature is lower.
Commercial electric vehicle manufacturers such as Tata Motors and others have been looking at grease-based lubrication technology advancements for use in commercial e – mobility solutions.
This was recently attempted using lithium-containing greases, which are organic formulations produced by saponification with lithium hydroxide (or, less frequently, lithium carbonate).
Their dropping point temperature is greater than that of calcium greases, at 190-220 C (374-428 F); they cling well with the metal, are non-corrosive, and resist moisture.
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