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Electric bikes (e-bikes) provide cheap, convenient, and relatively energy-efficient transportation. As e-bike use grows, however, concerns are rising about lead pollution from their batteries and emissions from their use of grid electricity, primarily generated by coal power plants. E-bikes generate environmental impacts through several processes. Although they do not emit any local “tailpipe” emissions, they do require traditional grid electricity sources to recharge their batteries.
When evaluating the environmental consequences of e-bikes throughout their entire life cycle, lead contamination from industrial processes stands out as a major threat to the mode’s environmental sustainability, even with over 100 percent recycling rates. Large batteries are changed every 1–2 years, and a medium-sized e-bike emits 420 milligrams (mg) of lead per km through mining, smelting, and recycling.
In comparison to a fully loaded bus carrying 50 passengers, an average medium-sized e-bike produces roughly 15% less CO2 per passenger-kilometre (pax-km). E-bikes also produce less hydrocarbons and CO2 emissions and consume less energy per passenger-kilometre than buses. In comparison to buses, e-bikes generate greater amounts of SO2 and PM during their life cycle, as well as two orders of magnitude more lead emissions per passenger-kilometre.
The European Commission released a set of proposals to implement the European Green Deal in a package called “Fit For 55” containing a raft of legislative and policy measures aimed at reducing the EU’s carbon emissions by 55% in 2030. This will create demand for e-bikes as this plan is going to support the market by investing in cycling and cycling infrastructure, which flows straight through decarbonise emissions. The European Commission also published a proposal for new EU batteries regulations that e-bike batteries will be classified as portable batteries, similar to other batteries that are frequently handled by consumers and a new sub-category is proposed for batteries of ‘light means of transport’.
The Changing market trends are the policy regulations and institutions from the respective high end developed countries under the European Union. As part of the most recent development, cyclists aged 14 and above in England, Scotland, and Wales may ride an electric bike if it satisfies specific conditions.
Riding one does not necessitate a licence, and the electric bike does not need to be registered, taxed, or insured. The European Parliament and Council have reached a provisional agreement to exclude e-bikes from insurance obligations which results in no mandatory insurance and plates for e-bikes. This provisional agreement runs completely separate from the recommendations of the Transport Research Laboratory. However, there are distinct laws in Northern Ireland, where a cyclist who wants to ride an electric bike must obtain a moped licence and must register, tax, and insure the bike. Like conventional bikes, electric bikes can be either geared or single speed. However, they do differ from conventional bikes in many ways. The electric bike includes a motor, which can be placed on the front wheel (hub mounted) or on the frame of the bicycle.
Battery capacity information informs the electric vehicle driver of the remaining battery working time, allowing for more accurate mileage calculation and battery charge scheduling to minimise overcharging or over-discharging. Different discharge rates, ambient temperature, battery charge and discharge efficiency, and battery age all have an impact on the released capacity of a battery. Lithium-ion batteries in electric bikes significantly differ from those in other products such as mobile phones, notebook computers and uninterruptible power supply systems. As a bicycle battery operates continuously in a short period, battery capacity is normally designed to allow drivers to operate for around 1-2 hours. As the battery power is exhausted, the driver must charge the battery
The Global E Bike Battery Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
In the prevailing COVID-19 situation, the growth of the e-bike battery market has declined as the pandemic is restricting the supply of batteries and other components due to severe disruptions in the global economy. The e-bike battery market was moderately impacted by this pandemic due to supply chain disruptions as key components for batteries are mainly manufactured in the Asia-Pacific region. Battery manufacturers in the US, Germany and Australia are highly impacted by the shutdown of operations in China and other Asia Pacific countries. Meanwhile the cost of the battery and drive mechanism of motor technology made e-bikes costly as compared with traditional bicycles or scooters. At the same time, battery maintenance is a major concern with e-bikes as they have a limited life span, which is about 2-3 years for widely used lithium-ion batteries, which restrained the growth of e-bike battery market.
However, the industry witnessed a gradual recovery from the second half of 2020, as e-bikes are considered a safe, convenient and affordable alternative to public transportation. Owing to the government restrictions on public transport due to social distancing guidelines, people are adopting the e-bike as the mode of day-to-day transportation. Also compared to other transportation systems, e-bikes are cheaper, easier to charge and don’t require huge investments in supportive infrastructure will increase the market growth.
The infrastructure facilities such as guarded bicycle parking facilities, construction of more bicycle routes and establishment of battery charging stations in many countries by the governments significantly boost the adoption of e-bikes propel the growth of e-bike sales as well the growth of e-bike battery market. The major factors such as implementation of government regulations all around the world to encourage the use of electric bikes, consumer inclination toward use of e-bikes as a eco-friendly solution for commute, increase in fuel costs and rising interest in cycling as a fitness & recreational activity increased the growth of e-bike battery market.
Higo has developed a new F618 battery connector with 30A that can move flexibly in different directions to make the connection. This design has been developed to meet the growing demand in the e-bike market to allow batteries to make difficult mating angles in dowtube positioned batteries and to connect them easily to e-bike motor cabinet without using magnets – August 2021
The development of a new Sodium-ion battery by CATL is expected to relieve pressure on lithium supplies, which are forecast to see shortages as early as 2022. They planned to build a supply chain by 2023 to produce sodium-ion batteries, which have lower energy density than lithium-ion models,but are fast charging and more resilient in cold temperatures – August 2021
Fauza has teamed up with IoT mobility specialist Comodule to give riders the possibility to insure their e-bikes through the Fauza Rider App. The features include tailored insurance plans such as theft-only or theft and damage, automatic renewal and easy cancellation – July 2021
Northvolt announced its complete acquisition of US-based battery technology company Cuberg, which delivers high performance lithium metal cells produced on existing lithium-ion manufacturing lines for electromobility solutions. In addition to this, they will focus on materials research and development for lithium-ion anode and electrolyte technologies for e-bikes – March 2021
Samsung SDI announced that it will invest about USD 1.15 billion to expand their battery production capacities in Xian and Tianjin, China – January 2021
GS Yuasa Corporation announced their launch of its LIM30HL series of industrial lithium-ion battery modules for e-bikes. This series battery modules retaining the same dimensions as those of the existing LIM25H series, are upwardly compatible and has higher rated capacity and lower internal resistance – December 2020
The rapid expansion of the e-bike business has been fuelled in part by advancements in rechargeable valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery technology. Further market expansion and a shift from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries may result in even greater gains in performance and cost. Currently, e-bikes compete directly with buses and bicycles in most cities. Compared with a bus, they showed high levels of mobility with comparable emission rates.
The most recently evaluated technologies have been the VRLA and Li-ion battery technologies for e-bikes. A specific energy of 34 Wh/kg and a cost of $130/kWh were established for VRLA from a variety of worldwide brands. Li-ion batteries in the PRC have a specific energy of 110 watt-hours (Wh)/kg and cost $560/kWh on average.
Although Li-ion batteries have significantly higher initial cost, they also have a longer lifetime. Considering the life-cycle user cost, Li-ion is 60% more expensive than VRLA. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable for the mass market in the near term given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries.
Another alternative is to use modern battery technologies such as Li-ion or NiMH. Currently, the most significant barrier to implementing improved battery technologies is cost. If policymakers could devise incentives or laws to narrow the price difference, e-bikes would be among the most ecologically beneficial motorised modes of transportation.
Samsung SDI reported very strong financial results in the second quarter of 2021, including a record quarterly revenue up 30% year-over-year and operating profit of 184% year-over-year. The revenue from the LI-ion battery segment is about 2,721 billion KRW, up 41.2% year-over-year which is 81% of total revenue of 3,334 billion KRW with the net profit margin at 8.6%.
In the second quarter of 2021, SK Innovation increased battery sales by about 86% year-over-year with $ 630 billion. It remains unprofitable, but the operating margin of negative -16% is much better than before because of the volume deliveries of batteries for e-bikes in European regions and the early stabilization of new plants.
BASF sales increased by $ 7.1 billion in the second quarter of 2021 as compared with the same period of previous year with $ 19.8 billion. The sales growth of 56% was largely contributed by higher prices and volumes in all segments. The sales in the battery materials segment rose by 75% to $ 3.7 billion when compared with the second quarter of 2020.
Exide Industries posted a consolidated net profit of Rs 32 crore in the first quarter of FY21 as compared with a net loss of Rs 14 crore in the April-June period of FY20. Revenue from operations stood at Rs 3,543 crore during Q1 FY21 as against Rs 2,526 crore in Q1 FY20. As a result of this, the market share of the company has increased by 2.44% from the previous year.
LG Chemical Ltd., and subsidiaries reported a total revenue of 9.65 billion KRW in the first quarter of FY21, up by 33% as compared to the first quarter of 2020 with 6.72 billion KRW.
Panasonic reported a total income of Rs 49.41 crore in the first quarter of FY21, down 21.83% from the last quarter (Q4 FY20) Rs 63.21 crore and up 42.35% from the last year same quarter total income of Rs 34.71 crore.
There has been constant technology adoption and automated control system implementation within the two-wheeler market. The major stakeholders are involved in implementing new strategies of technology to have a better and safer ride for the customers.
Samsung SDI has made a specialised approach in manufacturing these E Bike batteries for better mobility solutions to be integrated into the market at varied levels of requirements. Samsung SDI’s high capacity 3.5Ah (35E) cells enable the design of battery packs with a smaller number of cells but with the same capacity. Using the lighter and slimmer battery packs helps in better cell balance technology contributes to the uniform quality of the packs and driving units, and ultimately to the quality of the E-bike.
Bosch has also been making its efforts towards better E bike Battery mobility in the global market with new and technologically advanced battery systems being brought into existence. The Battery Management System of the high-quality lithium-ion batteries detects potential sources of error and protects cells from overloading. the combination of two Bosch batteries delivers up to 1,250 Wh. The system switches intelligently between both batteries when charging and discharging and is the perfect solution for tour bikers, long-distance commuters, cargo bikes or Mountain bikers.
The India based green fuel Energy Systems has also been making its requirements flow through the global market with advanced batteries being brought into better existence and capabilities. It has recently introduced the NMC Chemistry based batteries for E Bikes into the market which have varied levels of design, volumetric and capacitance capabilities placed into the market client requirements.
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