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The railway superstructure and train stock combine to produce a complicated mechanical system. Wears arise as a result of the interface between the rolling stock and the rail, both at the wheel profile and on the rail.
This wear generates contact pressures that hasten the degradation of the railway track. This condition necessitates costly maintenance work on both rails and rolling stock wheels.
There are two sources of residual stresses in rail: manufacturing process stresses and train passage stresses.
The rail contact fatigue crack is the most damaging because residual stresses influence the genesis and spread of the fracture inside the rail. The most dangerous side effects include derailing.
So far, studies have shown that the combination of rolling contact, tiredness, and wear is the most harmful consequence. Because of the change in rail radius and increased traction, the point of contact is migrating to the gauge corner.
Without adequate maintenance, the rail profile changes, resulting in increased rail-wheel contact forces and, as a result, more damage propagation.
Condition monitoring systems are frequently used to examine the health of equipment. Data capture is a critical component of any condition monitoring system.
Estimating the current state and projecting future behavior of the equipment are heavily reliant on the data measurement stage’s characteristics.
Nowadays, condition monitoring has a wide range of applications in the railway sector, and many monitoring systems for inspecting wheel and rail conditions have been presented.
In-service condition monitoring of wheels gives real-time data for maintenance planning, whereas in-workshop examination is typically performed at set intervals.
Around the world, major rail networks are being expanded and electrified in order to promote the most environmentally friendly mode of transportation. Management is controlled by private players in the majority of the world’s largest rail network countries.
With about 218,000 km of operational rail network, the European Union (EU) possesses the world’s longest electrified rail length as well as one of the safest railway networks.
The EU Commission is dedicated to making its rail network more comfortable for passengers by enacting new legislation and allowing private industry actors to help enhance the present network.
For example, the EU commission has set an aim of transferring 30% of freight by 2020.
Smart railway stations have sprouted up in several developing countries in recent years. Various governments want to improve their rail transportation centers in order to make their railway stations smarter.
In Spain, the International Union of Railways (UIC) and ADIF, the Spanish rail infrastructure management, have joined forces to realise the objective of Smart Stations in Smart Cities.
The Europe Rail Wheel Sensors Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
Wheels are prone to a variety of flaws, which have an impact on their smooth rotation. Wheel flaws include eccentricities, discrete defects, periodic non-roundness, non-periodic (stochastic) non-roundness, corrugation, roughness, flat, spalling, and shelling.
These flaws generate large impact forces at the wheel–rail contact, causing damage to the rail and train components. With quicker speeds and heavier axle loads, modern trains have stronger wheel–rail contact forces. Ultrasonic methods are currently being utilized extensively for non-destructive testing.
The difference in thermal conductivities of steel and the air layer in the fracture is used by an infrared camera to identify cracks in a railway wheel.
Any thermal resistance of cracks to heat flow causes rapid temperature variations in the fracture region. Furthermore, it is an active procedure that necessitates heating.
Furthermore, the break is apparent in around 3 minutes after the heating process begins. As a result, it is unsuitable for in-service installation.
Another issue that arises in the employment of a thermal imager and an infrared radiation camera is the selection of the wavelength operation range.
The Inductive sensor technology provides highly precise and reliable solutions, which can be used for a wide variety of applications. For safety reasons, a wheel sensor generally consists of two independent sensor systems in one housing.
This dual channel processing allows for the possibility of other wheel detection system functions, which are based on the temporal context and the intensity of the interference.
Frauscher Wheel Sensors detect the presence, speed, and direction of motion of an axle, among other things, under all climatic, technical, and operational situations.
Maximum availability is achieved by a strong design, high-quality components, and exceptionally dependable technologies. The wheel detection system is made up of two parts: a wheel sensor and an assessment board.
All analogue signals are safely sent from the sensor to the prefabricated assessment boards. The boards can be placed centrally in the interlocking or, in the event of a decentralised layout, in cubicles along the train line.
Voestalpine Railway Systems is involved in production of heavy line tracking systems for the EU Nations market. The UniAS SIL4 approved wheel sensor is an IP68-certified wheel sensor with a 20mA interface that offers the maximum resilience to different EMC and environmental impacts.
The SIL4 certified wheel sensor UniAS may be fitted using a clamp at the rail’s foot without piercing the rail’s web. These feature exceptional temperature stability and configurable amplification factor for the required signal, as well as a 20mA signal to give great immunity against vehicle-emitted disturbances and impacts to any cable.
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