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Tires are strong and flexible based rubber casings which are present and used within various industrial segments as required to have a sturdy support on vehicular movements. Tyres for most vehicles are pneumatic; air is held under pressure inside the tire. Until recently, pneumatic tires had an inner tube to hold the air pressure, but now pneumatic tires are designed to form a pressure seal with the rim of the wheel.
Tires can be found on heavy duty trucks, buses, aircraft landing gear, tractors and other farm equipment, industrial vehicles such as forklifts, and common conveyances such as baby carriages, shopping carts, wheelchairs, bicycles, and motorcycles.
Tire purchasing and disposal impose considerable cost and waste burdens on private vehicle owners and fleet managers. The tire maintenance management practices and tire-related vehicle technologies that have the potential to relieve some of the vehicular burdens. Alongside these, the behaviour, attitudes, and practices of fleet personnel and individual drivers relate to tire attributes and technologies.
Natural rubber is the main raw material used in manufacturing tires, although synthetic rubber is also used. In order to develop the proper characteristics of strength, resiliency, and wear-resistance, however, the rubber must be treated with a variety of chemicals and then heated.
Today, large, efficient factories staffed with skilled workers produce more than 250 million new tires a year. Although automation guides many of the steps in the manufacturing process, skilled workers are still required to assemble the components of a tire.
As part of a basic and maximised usage, the tires are manufactured by wrapping multiple layers of specially formulated rubber around a metal drum in a tire-forming machine. The different components of the tire are carried to the forming machine, where a skilled assembler cuts and positions the strips to form the different parts of the tire, called a “green tyre” at this point. When a green tyre is finished, the metal drum collapses, allowing the tire assembler to remove the tire. The green tire is then taken to a mould for curing.
From the early days of the automobile until now, tires have seen many technological advancements. Improvements in raw materials and chemical compounds have led to tires that perform more effectively. Whether it is compounds offering better grip in snow and ice or compounds providing improved wet handling, technology continues to enhance tire performance.
Tyres are the only contact of cars with the road surface, and are, therefore, extremely important for safety, rolling resistance, rolling noise and other performances of the vehicle. Better quality tyres save lives, reduce fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions (CO2 and air pollution) and noise emissions. This is permitted under EU law, as the current tyre limits are significantly below the current state of the art.
The requirements of tightening the tyre limits to the current state of the art in the short term. For the longer term it is proposed to tighten the tyre limits with the current best available technology as to keep on pace with the swiftly improving tyre technology.
There has been a move towards an increased level of material recycling and the sector is evenly divided between recycling and energy recovery. This illustrates the balance required between the convenience of dealing with waste tyres through energy recovery, a quick and cost-effective solution and recycling solutions where the recovered materials may be used and reused.
The European Union nations have been focusing upon the Tire production in a more recycled and green efficient manners in the recent market trends. The tyre recycling sector would indeed benefit from a more open consideration from governments through the encouragement of Green Public Procurement and the establishment of a recycled materials quota for public bodies.
The digital age or the 4.0 industry makes its presence felt in all areas of the economy, making serious contributions to its development. The automotive industry is in a phase of change, acting on all its sub-industries such as the automotive tyre industry.
EU has been witnessing a process in which large companies no longer sell a simple car or basic tyres, but resort to new technologies and digitalization to sell complex services tailored to the needs of consumers. The tire industry in Europe has some mandatory requirements such as winter tyres.
In accordance with the GO 5/2011 and the Law 161/2011, drivers must have their cars equipped with winter tyres when driving on public roads covered by snow or ice. At European level, there are regulations regarding the 16 countries that have introduced this law. This increases the much required tire market and a mandatory inclusion of the tires with the industry as required.
The Europe Tire market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The Vehicular tyres are of major importance in recent days as they propel the capability and the requirements to run upon varied terrains and surfaces of operation. Therefore it’s important to have an efficient technology to recycle and integrate new features for better compliance to the latest requirements.
One of the most comprehensive technological innovations of the modern tire era is run-flat tire technology. Run-flat technology allows drivers who sustain air loss due to a puncture or cut in their tire to drive approximately 50 miles at 50 m.p.h. so they can reach a safe location to change the tire.
There have been developments done to decrease the operational sound produced during the running of tyres wherein the attempts to reduce the sound perception within the vehicle has been focused. There has been a ponderable amount of around 10 dBA reduction in the sound perception within the vehicle.
Vehicle technology is changing very rapidly and so is tyre technology. New kinds of vehicles create new challenges for tyre makers, while new material research and tyre designs are creating greener and more sustainable products. The introduction of the latest EV and Hybrid based vehicles as propulsion units have been the major focus.
Electric vehicle tyres have been equipped with foam penetration within the tyres so as to have a quiet and silenced running on the tyres. This was done as part of acoustic requirements within the vehicles, due to their low sound / noise production as part of operations.
There has been recent inclusion of intelligent tyres with sensors which is being placed under the pilot projects in most of the tire manufacturing stakeholder establishments. These are to be retrofitted with various customer requirements and sensory technologies. Alongside these, there has been a considerable amount of sustainable sources based production being focused upon for the tire production.
The Europe tire market is highly fragmented and Tire Manufacturers face a global level of competition within the European union and have considerable advantages as well in terms of the internal regulations and presence of high alignment towards research and development of new prospects of technology within the European union nations.
Goodyear, which is an EU based Tire Maker has focused upon the waste based inclusive processing of new tyres into the production for the market in recent days. The Waste from processing rice husk ash converted into silica is used in Goodyear tyres.
Goodyear worked with the United Soybean Board to develop soybean oil in tyres to increase performance. Soybean oil helps the tyres remain flexible in cold weather increasing traction in rain and snow. Soybean oil mixes more easily with rubber reducing energy use in production.
Continental which is an eminent and large-scale manufacturer of tires in the Russian region of the EU has focused upon the dandelion plant-based latex to be included within the tire production. The latest product of Continental has dandelion extracted latex induced within the tires. This has reduced the extensive and over usage of natural rubber present in the EU. Thereby acts as an alternative of importance.
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