Fomesafen (FSA) is frequently used to suppress weeds in soybean fields. Yet, the persistence of FSA in agricultural soil or water may develop into a covert threat that harms subsequent crops by creating phytotoxicity and environmental contamination. The physiological and growth responses of rice to FSA were examined in this study.
It was discovered that exposure to FSA, particularly at doses more than 0.1 mg L1, clearly reduced the growth of rice seedlings. In order to fully characterise the biochemical processes and catalytic reactions involved in FSA metabolism in rice, four libraries of rice roots and shoots exposed to FSA were created.
These libraries were then subjected to global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with HRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analytical technologies.
Fomesafen belongs to the group of herbicides known as diphenyl ethers, which work to suppress weeds by preventing the plant enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) from doing its job. An enzyme involved in the synthesis of heme and chlorophyll is interfered with by PPO inhibitors, a herbicide site of action.
This inhibition triggers a chemical cascade that ultimately results in membrane rupture and lipid peroxidation, which causes the fast deterioration of plant tissues. Due to the quick reaction, there is limited translocation after foliar spray and contact activity results. PPO inhibitors injected into the soil are absorbed by roots and have a constrained upward movement in plants.
Fomesafen may more frequently result in the chlorosis/necrosis of leaves on crops with labels. Usually, plants recover from this damage without any harmful effects on yield or maturation.
The Global Fomesafen Market accounted for $XX Billion in 2022 and is anticipated to reach $XX Billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of XX% from 2023 to 2030.
In roots and shoots treated with FSA, 499 and 450 up-regulated genes were found in comparison to controls. Many of them had strong relationships with xenobiotic detoxification, tolerance to environmental stress, and molecular metabolism processes like cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, and acetyltransferase.
HRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was used to characterise a total of eight metabolites and fourteen conjugates in the reactive pathways of hydrolysis, substitution, reduction, methylation, glycosylation, acetylation, and malonylation. It was discovered that there is a connection between the metabolised derivatives of FSA and increased expression of the appropriate enzymatic regulators.
This study will aid in understanding the processes and metabolic pathways of FSA and stimulate additional investigation into the effects of FSA degradation in paddy crops on the environment and human health.
The ISO common name for an organic substance used as a herbicide is fomesafen. It works by preventing the production of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase enzyme, which is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll. Since glutathione S-transferase disposes of the toxin metabolically, soybeans have a high tolerance to it naturally.
As a result, soy, various beans, and a few other crop kinds are the most typical crops to receive fomesafen treatment. For maize/corn or other Poaceae, it is unsafe. A selective soil-applied and foliar herbicide called fomesafen is used to control annual broadleaf weeds in soybeans1. The usage of several fomesafen products in dry beans, snap beans, and potatoes is also indicated on the labels.
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