Published- July 2022
Number Of Pages -139
The most effective way to compensate for the fluctuating voltage level in fuel cells is with a precise control technology. Additionally, compared to rechargeable batteries, the acquisition costs per kWh are higher.
In addition, compared to battery technology, the necessary hydrogen tank requires more room for the same power rating. Infrastructure-wise, there are currently more hydrogen filling stations than electrical charging stations, however when compared to refilling internal combustion engine automobiles, the reverse is true.
The serviceability of fuel cells can be greatly increased with a power output that is as steady as feasible. It makes sense to get the average power from the fuel cell and to utilise a buffer battery to cover the power peaks if the drive additionally uses a battery in addition to the fuel cell.
The requirement to regulate the power at the point of load in each device has resulted in an increase in the number of control modules in automobiles, such as electronic control units (ECUs) and DC-DC converters.
The main purposes of DC-DC converters are isolation and voltage conversion. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and in-cabin entertainment have made cars into sophisticated mobile electronic systems that require multi-level, and noise free.
The market of 0-100kW after 2025 is expected to be heavily reliant on the buck converter used for the auxiliary components
The Global EV Inductive Motor Position Sensor Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
Registrations of natural gas vehicles (NGV) across the European Union plunged by 62.9%, with 4,983 units sold during the year 2021.
This fall was mainly due to the drop in Italy, which accounts for the vast majority of sales in the region.
By contrast, LPG-fueled vehicles recorded an increase in sales (+7.9%), reaching 64,152 units during the second quarter of the year 2021
In Trucks segment, Alternative fuels, which include natural gas, LPG, biofuels and ethanol, accounted for the vast majority of alternatively-powered trucks sold across the EU in 2021, with a total market share of 3.6% (up from 3.0% in 2020). Demand increased by 40.7% across the region, totaling 9,688 units sold last year in EU alone.
Recent research and innovation has brought several new trends in the development of FCV DC-DC converters.
One trend in this domain is the increasing usage of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC power devices are considered superior to the conventional silicon based power devices due to their higher switching frequency, lower loss and improved voltage and temperature ratings.
This makes them ideal for integration within FCV DC-DC converters. Their usage in these converters improve the overall efficiency of the system. The higher switching frequency also reduces the size of the overall system.
Another trending topic in the field is the application of new advanced topologies and modulation techniques.New topologies such as Z-Source converter, CS-SEPIC, dual active bridge, and cascaded H-bridge offer many advantages over the conventional converters.
These topologies reduce the voltage stress on the switches, and reduce the conduction and switching losses. Advanced modulation strategies such as space vector modulation, predictive current control method and predictive voltage control method can help reduce the switching losses to achieve higher efficiency as well.
Also, various optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are increasingly being used to identify the best combination of parameters of a system for optimal efficiency.
Model-controlled optimization techniques such as fuzzy logic control have also shown promising results pertaining to optimal tuning of parameters.
The usage of energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries in a vehicular system has also been increasing lately. The addition of these energy storage systems bring along several advantages such as power reserve capability, and limited dependency on external power supply.
A system incorporating the combination of DC-DC converter and energy storage system becomes more efficient than either device by itself. Furthermore, a battery can also serve as an effective filter to reduce the ripple present in the output voltage of the converter.
Overall, the development and research of FCV DC-DC converters is at its peak. New technologies and optimization techniques are constantly being introduced and improved for better efficiency and performance.
These technologies and strategies when combined together have great potential to create a highly efficient energy management system for vehicular applications.
The development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) has a significant impact on enhancing air quality and lessening other issues associated with fossil fuels.
Fuel cells and DC buses in the powertrains of FCVs require DC-DC boost converters with wide input voltage ranges and high gains, which help to improve the low voltage of fuel cells and their “soft” output properties.
The topologies of DC-DC converters have undergone much research and optimisation in order to construct them with the necessary performance.
Furthermore, a system for evaluating DC-DC topologies for FCVs is built, serving as a guide for creating boost converters with a large input range and high gain. The performance of DC-DC boost converters for FCVs is rigorously assessed using eight indexes by the evaluation method.
When it comes to new energy vehicles, FCVs are developing quickly. Fuel cell (FC) stack voltages, however, cannot be the same as a vehicle’s bus voltage.
The limitations of FCs, such as their slow dynamic reactions and large output voltage ranges, necessitate the use of auxiliary power sources (such batteries) to serve as external energy storage devices. As a result, power distribution and voltage decoupling are accomplished by using DC-DC boost converters.
Analysing the dynamic operating characteristics of the circuit is difficult since a DC-DC converter is an example of a typical nonlinear system. It is simple to evaluate and analyse the static and dynamic properties of a DC-DC converter system using realistic modelling, and it is also possible to match the controller parameters.
DC-DC converter research can advance with the development of FCVs and vehicle technologies. For instance, the FCV powertrain can be split into energy-type and power-type based on the various powertrain topologies, necessitating various types of DC-DC converters.
The ubiquitous use of permanent magnet synchronous motors in FCVs necessitates the use of DC-DC converters in order to swiftly regulate the output power.
These motors have extensive speed regulation ranges. The output powers of FCs depend on the driving environment and vehicle speed. Design principles for DC-DC converters can be drawn from research on motor torque, stability control, and calculation of vehicle velocity.
A state-space averaging method, modelling of pulse-width modulated (PWM) switches, and an equivalent transformer method are the three main modelling techniques used for DC-DC converters.
DC-DC converters required to maintain a steady bus voltage and accomplish dynamic output power regulation due to the “soft” output voltage characteristics of FCs and the fluctuating road conditions.
Following the provided signal and suppressing the disturbance signal are essential for achieving the control goal. In order to maximise the performance of a DC-DC converter, it is essential to consider factors such as speed, resilience, accuracy, and low complexity of the converter’s controller.
Global Fuel Cell Vehicle DC-DC Converter market is one of the consolidated market as of 2021 due to lesser sales of FCEV sales and lesser sales number of various OEMs
The transportation of the future may be significantly influenced by fuel cells. The high level of efficiency that fuel cell technology may attain is one special benefit.
Additionally, the cell’s energy conversion produces no CO2, making it less polluting and more environmentally beneficial in terms of producing ecological energy.
A fuel cell has no moving components, no vibration, a constant power output, and a relatively rapid hydrogen tank refuelling time.
Aradex is a leading mobiliser of the equipment in the market. The latest integration has been with excellent efficiency, the VP5000 high-voltage DC/DC converter links two distinct DC voltages in both directions.
The VP5000 DC/DC converters contain an inbuilt PLC to handle extra tasks, just like the VP600 inverters. All VP5000 models also allow for free programming.
Pre-charging resistors, contactors, and any other inductances that are functionally necessary are also built into the VP5000 for convenience. The Processes input voltages range from 48 to 770 VDC, with flexibly adjustable output voltages up to 750 VDC.
Infineon Technologies is part of the component manufacture trending companies in the current industry. In order to connect the fuel-cell stack to the high-voltage traction battery and the DC link voltage of the traction inverter, an FC electric drivetrain system must have at least one DC/DC boost converter.
Energy can move between these two electrical subnets across a wide voltage range to the fuel-cell DC/DC converter. These are just a few of the difficulties facing system designers, along with the requirement to limit the dimensions of the DC/DC converter to an absolute minimum
Traton Group one of the power electronics supplier announced the company will not be into developing DC-DC for FCEV as it sees no future for fuel-cell HDVs in most applications
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