Hydrogen or Fuel cell cars provide a practical alternative to zero emission mobility as compared to battery electric vehicles (BEV) as they eliminate range anxiety to a considerable extent. The refuelling times for a hydrogen car is just 3-5 minutes compared to hours for a BEV.
But, the problem is the price and availability of hydrogen. In California, US where Toyota has invested quite a lot to build H2 infrastructure it costs $14-$15 per kg which is simply 6X more than gas prices per gallon after COVID pandemic. On similar energy output comparison, the H2 price premium works out to be 3X of gas prices.
Hydrogen prices for consumers are highly dependent on number of existing refueling stations daily utilization and sales per day/month.
The prohibitive cost of setting up a Hydrogen fueling station is a major market restraint, at the moment, it costs more than $1-1.5 Million to build just one station and creating a network of such stations will certainly take time.
Cylinders are at the heart of the delivery of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, comprising ~40% of the overall cost of a hydrogen refuelling station. As demand for H2 fueling station increases further there has been a proportionate increase in demand for Type 1 seamless steel cylinders.
In US, California is the only state in the continental U.S. where a fuel cell car can be purchased and fewer than 9,000 are on the road compared to 730,000 Plug in EVs. California Energy Commission has sanctioned $39.1 Million to help construct 36 new hydrogen fuelling stations across the state.
In U.K., the North West Hydrogen Alliance (NWHA) has asked to expedite a UK Hydrogen Strategy to be developed to co-ordinate development and funding of hydrogen projects across the country, and drive economic recovery post COVID.
In Canada, Province of British Columbia has approved $10 Million funding to construct 10 fuelling stations. It already has three public H2 station with three more under construction.
China`s government has been actively promoting sales of long range EVs since 2015 but post COVID, the market has failed to pick up after sales declined YOY in 2019.
With only 64 hydrogen stations across the country, China is not a leading player in global hydrogen fueling station development, and has so far lagged behind in policy development. Therefore, China’s government will soon be rolling out a new package of hydrogen fuel cell policies to help provide support to the use of renewable H2 power in the country.
China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec) has been pushing for research and development of hydrogen facilities in recent years and produced more than 3 million tons of hydrogen in 2019.
The global hydrogen fueling station market is estimated at $XX Million in 2024 growing at –% CAGR till 2030
Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, and Iwatani Corporation of America (ICA), a wholly owned subsidiary of Iwatani Corporation, have announced a collaboration to develop and build 30 hydrogen filling stations in California.
Chevron will fund the building of the sites, which will be located at Chevron-branded retail stores around the state, as part of the arrangement. The stations will first fuel light-duty cars, but they will eventually be able to handle heavy-duty vehicles. Iwatani will run and maintain the hydrogen fuelling stations, as well as providing hydrogen supply and logistics.
Chevron intends to supply a part of the filling stations with excess hydrogen production capacity from its Richmond Refinery and future hydrogen production from Northern California pilot projects.
Linde Engineering announced today that it has signed a contract with Yara for the building and delivery of a 24 megawatt green hydrogen power plant. Enova provided funds to Yara for the development of the first facility.
Linde and Yara will show how ammonia produced with renewable energy may minimise the amount of carbon dioxide released during fertiliser manufacture.
The 24 MW plant, which will be built in Porsgrunn, Norway’s Heroya Industry Park, will use ITM Power’s proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology.
This will be Linde Engineering’s second 24 MW PEM electrolysis facility; the first is currently under construction at the Leuna Chemical Complex in Germany.
The electrolyzer will be able to produce roughly 10,000 kg of hydrogen each day. Water electrolysis will produce green hydrogen to partially replace grey hydrogen in Yara’s ammonia plant, reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 41,000 tonnes per year.
This quantity of pollution is equivalent to about 16,000 passenger vehicles. The electrolyzer will generate enough hydrogen to manufacture 20,500 tonnes of ammonia per year, which can then be transformed into 60,000 to 80,000 tonnes of green fertiliser.
The plant is Yara’s first step in the ammonia industry’s decarbonization.
The energy storage and clean fuel firm is thrilled to launch the opening of its first public access hydrogen refuelling station, supported by InnovateUK, today at the Advanced Manufacturing Park, just off the M1, Junction 33 in South Yorkshire. InnovateUK-funded ITM Power opens a new hydrogen refuelling station at the Advanced Manufacturing Park in South Yorkshire.
Hyundai, Toyota, and Honda will all be on hand to support the event by showing off their fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The autos will also be available for delegates to ‘ride and drive. The station, which has received funding from Innovate UK, now provides hydrogen gas at a pressure of 350 bar.
Hydrogen is currently transferred as a gas to fuelling stations. Linde’s revolutionary ionic compressor employs five hydraulic pistons to gradually compress hydrogen to 900 bar pressure, allowing it to be used as a vehicle fuel.
Passenger cars require a gas pressure of 700 bar, while bigger vehicles such as buses and trains require a pressure of 350 bar.
Linde also offers a refuelling approach that allows hydrogen to be stored as a liquid in addition to compressed gas fueling. Liquid hydrogen has a substantially higher energy density than gaseous hydrogen.
One liquid hydrogen tanker has the same amount of energy as seven gas tankers. This is due to the fact that liquid hydrogen (LH2) occupies one-seventh of the volume of hydrogen in its gaseous state (GH2).
This makes LH2 an especially appealing option for highly populated locations where space for new or expanded fuelling stations is restricted. Linde designed its CP90 and CP50 cryopumps for LH2 filling stations against this backdrop.
Improved Efficiency: Scientists and engineers have been working to make hydrogen manufacturing and dispensing at fuelling stations more effective. This includes improvements in hydrogen generation technology such as electrolyzers, which are more effective and economical, requiring less energy and improving system efficiency overall.
On-Site generating: As a solution to cut costs and reliance on hydrogen supply chains, on-site hydrogen generating at fuelling stations has drawn attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a type of water electrolysis that has sophisticated technologies that enable on-demand hydrogen production at filling stations.
Advanced Compression and Storage: New developments in hydrogen compression and storage technology have increased energy economy, safety, and dependability.Higher pressure storage and quicker fueling times are made possible by improved compression systems such ionic liquid piston compressors or advanced metal hydrides.
Hydrogen fueling stations can use integrated renewable energy systems to produce clean hydrogen from sources like solar or wind energy.As a result, the fuelling process has a less carbon footprint because green hydrogen may be produced using renewable electricity.
Technologies for Hydrogen Dispensing: In order to increase user comfort and safety, advances have been made in the design and engineering of hydrogen dispensers.The overall dependability and simplicity of use at hydrogen filling stations is enhanced through improved nozzle and connector designs, enhanced leak detection systems, and standardized standards for fuelling processes.
Monitoring and control systems for stations provide real-time monitoring of hydrogen refueling facilities, assuring their secure and effective operation. These systems have the ability to monitor station inventory, handle irregularities, control hydrogen flow, and enable remote access and diagnostics.
Planning for hydrogen infrastructure has advanced, as has optimization of the infrastructure. To find the best places for new filling stations, assess the need for infrastructure, and prepare for future expansion, this includes using cutting-edge modeling and simulation techniques.
The major players in the hydrogen fuelling station market are primarily fuel and energy companies who are expanding coverage from gas/Diesel to electric charging and now also to hydrogen.
France based Air Liquide has invested a few hundred $Million in the hydrogen economy in US and Europe. Netherlands based Shell was awarded $40.8m, subject to formal approval, by California Energy Commission regulators to expand the hydrogen refuelling network in California.
There are various new use cases for H2 fuel emerging now. For example, Hyundai and GRZ Technology have been cooperating in hydrogen storage technology since last year. Using Hyundai’s fuel cell system, GRZ technology plans to produce a stationary power supply system to be used for building electricity at peak time.
Similarly, in Sep 2020, ABB and Hydrogen Optimized signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to explore the development of large-scale green hydrogen production systems connected to the electrical grid.
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