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Concrete is a fundamental building material that will remain in high demand for the foreseeable future. It’s difficult to envision a world without concrete and its dominating forerunner, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC).
Although many forms of concrete have been produced for use in various purposes, they all have the following characteristics: familiarity, adaptability, strength, durability, broad availability, fire resistance, resistance to the weather, and comparably low cost.
It is a global product produced in thousands of factories throughout the world. Globally, the business is consolidating, yet huge international corporations account for just 30% of the global market.
Cement accounts for 83 percent of total energy usage in nonmetallic resource production and 94 percent of CO2 emissions. Energy accounts for 20% to 40% of the entire cost of cement manufacture.
The most energy-consuming operation is the manufacturing of cement clinker from limestone and chalk by heating limestone to temperatures exceeding 950°C.
Portland cement, the most popular type of cement, contains 95% cement clinker. Electricity is widely used in the grinding of raw materials as well as finished cement.
As a result of the manufacture of lime, a crucial component in cement, cement manufacturing is the third greatest source of man-made CO2 emissions.
As a result, energy savings during cement manufacture may result in a decreased environmental effect. The cement production process offers the most opportunity for enhancing energy efficiency and lowering CO2 emissions.
It is critical to remember that waste materials ignite and burn at different temperatures and under different circumstances during the cement pyro processing process.
As a result, solid waste fuels must be delivered into the kiln in a way that does not significantly alter the temperature profile or chemical processes in the overall pyroprocessing.
The four basic process pathways utilized for cement manufacture are dry, semi-dry, semi-wet, and wet processes. Dry procedures are significantly more energy efficient, although the method of choosing is mostly determined by the condition of raw materials.
The cement industry confronts a variety of issues, including dwindling fossil fuel reserves, raw material shortages, ever-increasing demand for cements and concrete, expanding environmental concerns related to climate change, and an ailing global economy.
Despite the modest gains in process efficiency achieved by the cement industry in recent years, OPC manufacturing continues to account for around 6% of all man-made worldwide carbon emissions.
To know more about Global Cement Market, read our report
Following the pandemic-induced lockdown (June 2020 onwards), the cement industry experienced a boom as a result of the overall growth of the Indian economy, owing primarily to increased industrial activity, thriving real estate business, growing construction activity, and expanding infrastructure investment.
Historically, cement has been a severely taxed industry, with both the federal and state governments levying taxes that equal to around 30% of the selling price of cement or over 70% of the ex-factory price.
OPC is a critical building material as well as a strategic commodity. Because of our reliance on OPC, the globe today generates about 3.6 billion.
Although estimates vary by nation, over half of the world’s OPC is used to produce around 11 billion metric tonnes of concrete each year; the remainder is used in mortars, screeds, stucco, coatings, soil stabilisation, and other uses.
China now dominates the OPC market, accounting for 57.3 percent of worldwide consumption. The cement industry, like the rest of the construction industry, is facing unprecedented challenges in terms of energy supply, CO2 emissions, and alternative material utilisation. As fuel sources dwindle, the global cost of energy climbs inexorably.
If carbon-reducing cements could be produced for commercial use, they would most likely provide the safest, most cost-effective, and most elegant Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology.
The availability of resources determines how much cement is produced in each country. When domestic output falls short of meeting demand, a country might import to fill the gap.
By 2050, emissions will be nearly five times higher than they were in 1990. This is not a wise path to take as the world becomes more environmentally conscious.
The sustainability measures will thus not only assist pave the road for a “greener” cement industry, but will also help reduce greenhouse gas taxes and ensure the company’s long-term viability.
The India Cement Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The India cement market industry has seen significant changes as a result of technical advancement and incorporation of cutting-edge technologies in the quest of cost efficiency and consolidation.
Modernizations at the factories, as well as improvements to plant procedures, have also contributed to a reduction in staffing needs.
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement, Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, and White Cement, among others, are produced in India.
The primary distinction is the percentage of clinkers utilised. These many types of cement are manufactured exactly according to BIS criteria, and their quality is equivalent to the best in the world.
Production industries in cement production have been and continue to be streamlined and automated, utilising the best available technology to minimise costs, emissions, and boost productivity.
This has resulted in modest reductions in GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions as well as lower employment levels in the industry. The creation of novel cements entails the development of cement production procedures that utilise various raw materials.
The common goal of innovative cement developers is to create cement that emits less CO2 and takes less energy to produce without lowering or compromising the cement’s efficiency.
Wastes can also change the composition of cement. When tyres are co-incinerating, for example, the zinc oxide level of clinkers increases dramatically.
As a result of the combustion of alternative fuels, several components are introduced into the kiln via ash. These can have an impact on the cement’s performance qualities, such as decreased early strength and longer setting periods.
The India cement market sector has already reduced overall CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.72 t CO2/t cement, down from a far higher level of 1.12 t CO2/t cement in 1996.
CO2 emissions are expected to be lowered further to 0.58 t CO2/t cement by 2050. Simultaneously, R&D activities are aimed at developing and implementing techniques for designing buildings and concrete structures for a specific service life, the use of C&D waste in construction, and the substitution of natural sand with bottom ash.
Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) can be employed as fillers or for their pozzolanic qualities, and Ultratech cement has lately begun to focus on them.
Blast furnace slag, fly ash, and, to a lesser extent, silica fume are the most common industrial SCMs. The goal was to reduce direct resource utilisation and improve waste generation reuse implementation within the industrial sector.
This resulted in the development of new cement formulations with substantially greater strengths and requirements.
Ambuja Cements has also been involved in the provision of unique cement technology for the purpose of high strength railway sleepers under the Ambuja Railcam product brand, which is a high Blaine Portland cement.
In addition, it has introduced the low carbon footprint based high strength cement of Compchem, which has the least impact on the environment in the country.
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