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A power transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. Since, there is no rotating or moving part, a transformer is a static device. Transformer operates on an AC supply and works on the principle of mutual induction.
The most common purpose of a power electronic transformer is to convert alternating current (A.C.) power from one A.C. voltage (or current) to another A.C. voltage (or current). Another common purpose is to provide electrical isolation between electrical circuits.
Generation of electrical power at low voltage level is very much cost effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted results in greater line current which indeed causes more line losses. Because of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission.
This is done by a step up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to the desired level at the receiving end with the help of a step-down transformer. Electrical power transformers thus play a vital role in power transmission.
Electronic transformers / power transformers range in size from a cubic centimetre to multiple cubic meters. The weight can range from a fraction of an ounce to multiple tons. The size and weight of a power transformer is dependent on several factors. A non-exhaustive list includes desired power rating, maximum ambient temperature, allowable temperature rise, cooling method, transformer shape, voltage dielectric requirements, required voltage regulation, operating frequency, operating waveform, and core material.
Power transformer design involves many interdependent parameters. It becomes difficult to optimize a power transformer design. Most power transformer designers use an electrical model that allows them to approximate a transformer design.
Electrical Power Transmission Systems engineering alongside distribution organize examination, arranging and configuration, assume a basic part in the specialized administration, advancement, and obtaining of complex power and vitality innovation systems.
India had in the past looked upon lack of electricity transmission in spite of being capable of energizing the required amounts of electrical power to the nation. The key factor of absence was an appropriate level of developmental plan being phased into action for the transmission of electric power.
Transformers are the very vital components in almost all the parts of electrical power systems like generation, transmission, distribution and essential utilisation area. It can be either step-up or step- down the voltage in these areas, but it is needed in all parts of human life, right from home to industry whatever the industrial revolution. These have been part of the Indian Electrical power requirements since ages.
The major requirements of increased electrical power transmission and phased distribution compliance has been the goal for the Indian power industry. This was to be complied by efficient transformer systems being built which were environment friendly and operable for longer time frames and weathered conditions with low maintenance.
Within India, there has been a planned huge power generation capacity addition for every five-year plans involved. However, the addition lags behind the targets, mainly due to delays in land acquisition, environmental and forest clearance issues, uncertainty over fuel linkage and tightening of credit flow.
The domestic transformer manufacturing entities almost doubled their manufacturing capacity to around 4 lakh MVA at the end of each financial year, based on expected addition in power generation capacity. However, with lower capacity additions in the generation sector, the transformer manufacturing capacities remained underutilized.
Considering the requirement of 7 MVA of transformers for 1 MW of power generation, the present transformer manufacturing capacity could suffice an annual domestic power generation capacity addition of around 60 GW. Furthermore, cold rolled grain oriented (CRGO) steel, another key raw material forming around 20% of the total transformer cost, is fully imported in India with no domestic manufacturing facility. Hence, the transformer manufacturers remain susceptible to forex movements.
India Power Transformer Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The future of electrical power transmission is of major importance in the country, as it has been undergoing a large-scale deployment in the electrical transmission lines alongside a possible upgradation in the conveyance being adopted for transfer of electric power from the transmission stagnations.
Furthermore, cold rolled grain oriented (CRGO) steel, another key raw material forming around 20% of the total transformer cost, is fully imported in India with no domestic manufacturing facility. Hence, the transformer manufacturers remain susceptible to forex movements.
There has been introduction of the new Oil immersed Large power transformers technology within the Indian power industry. There has been utilisation of high-grade oriented silicon sheets in the core of these transformers alongside the usage of thin sheets as part of coating and high magnetic flux requirements. This has led to no load loss conditions and lower sound level.
The inclusion of transposed copper windings within the transformers has brought upon the required continuous winding work being reasonably easy and shortening the man hours required for maintenance. This has also led to possible decrease in eddy current losses within the winding.
The New integration of high voltage direct current transformers have been involved to provide a higher 800-volt converter capability alongside the possibility of phase shifting within the transformer requirements. These allow reactive power to be controlled which maximize the line efficiency alongside gaining the required traction capability.
SCADA Interfaces have been technologically integrated to have better control and supervision over the diagnostic feature of the transformers, wherein the intelligent electronic devices and intelligent monitoring and diagnostic devices provide a web-based control over the transformer capabilities. This has been used with a new sturdy construction material of laser scribed core material of ZDKH Grade within the transformers.
Indian private sector has been the major and new brand marking player in the Indian industry of electrical power transmission and transformers manufacturing, as they have been able to bring the required amounts of technological improvements alongside the operating public sectors.
The Private players have been involved in construction of various transmission lines within the country on a large-scale occupancy basis and operating alongside the public players as well.
India is the world’s third-largest producer and third-largest consumer of electricity. The national electric grid in India has an installed capacity of 370.106 GW with the Renewable power plants, which also include large hydroelectric plants, constitute a considerable share of India’s total installed capacity.
ABB India is a 100% subsidiary of Global Company, engaged in Power and robotics business. They manufacture Power Grid Units, Transformers, Enclosures, Cable systems and Low-voltage circuit breakers, measuring and Electric Motors, Power Electronics, Generators, Invertors, Solar Power Inverters, Switch gears, Circuit Breakers, High Voltage Products, and Grid Integration & Automation projects.
ABB was involved in HDVC or High Voltage Direct Current technology implementation within the country on a large scale. This has changed the way electricity is supplied to the end users. Their HDVC technology reduces power losses and has made electrical energy travel long distances easily and cost effectively.
General Electric Power has been a major contributor to various projects within the country which involves intensified electrical transmission and distribution establishment. They have paced their research capabilities in integrating the new class of green transformers into the transmission chain. It is focused upon low and reduced consumption of natural resources and recycling capabilities at the end of its life.
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