INDIA POWER TRANSMISSION MARKET
Electrical power transmission involves the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power station or power plant, to an electrical substation where voltage is transformed and distributed to consumers or other substations. Electric transmission and distribution (T&D) technologies include components used to transmit and distribute electricity from generation sites to end users.
The interconnected lines that enable the movement of electrical energy are known as a transmission network, and these form an electrical power transmission system or, as it is more commonly known, the power grid. This stage of primary transmission involves the transfer of a large quantity of electrical power from the initial generating station to the substation via overhead electrical lines.
In some countries, underground cables are also used in cases where transmission takes place over a shorter distance. The costs derived from installing, operating, and maintaining the transmission and distribution system have historically comprised about 2/3 the total costs of producing and delivering electricity to residential-commercial customers, and over 1/3 the total costs of supplying electricity to large industrial customers.
The transmission and distribution system delivers electric power from the point of generation to the point of final consumption. It must have sufficient capacity to meet the peak demand of the area it serves and, simultaneously, to satisfy local energy demand patterns within the service area.
Transmission lines carry the electric power from the generating stations to the load centres of the demand network. Lines may have different maximum voltage ratings; one line may be rated at230 kilovolts, while another may have a rating of 765 kilovolts.
Thereby Power transmission forms to be the connecting and cumulative system of importance wherein the power distribution and connectivity is established as per the requirement of the end user, and a keen interest is placed so as to achieve the required step up and step-down requirements at the site.
INDIA POWER TRANSMISSION MARKET DYNAMICS
Electrical Power Transmission Systems engineering alongside distribution organize examination, arranging and configuration, assume a basic part in the specialized administration, advancement, and obtaining of complex power and vitality innovation systems.
India had in the past looked upon lack of electricity transmission in spite of being capable of energizing the required amounts of electrical power to the nation. The key factor of absence was an appropriate level of developmental plan being phased into action for the transmission of electric power.
Within the country, Most refrigerators, air conditioners, pumps and industrial machinery today use AC power whereas most computers and digital equipment use DC power. AC power has the advantage of being easy to transform between voltages and is able to be generated and utilised by brushless machinery.
There have been devices used to induce the required power voltage diversion in various forms, Nevertheless devices utilising solid state technology are often more expensive than their traditional counterparts, so AC power remains in widespread use.
Electricity is a concurrent subject in India i.e., both the central and state governments are responsible for the development of the electricity sector. NTPC, NHPC, THDC, NEEPCO, SJVNL, NLC etc. are the central generation utilities and POWERGRID is the Central Transmission Utility. At the State level, there are GENCO’s and Transco in the respective States.
The backbone transmission system in India is mainly through 400 kV AC network and 765 KV AC Network spread over a considerable amount of coverage. The present transmission system are being placed in India to meet the firm transmission needs as well as Open Access requirements.
The Long-term Access (LTA) gives the transmission system strengthening required for future generation additions and the Short-Term Open Access (STOA) facilitates increased real time trading in electricity, utilizing the inherent margins provided for required redundancies as per planning criteria
In order to address the protection of environment and other capacitance issues, high-capacity transmission corridors comprising 765kV AC and ±800kV 6000 MW HVDC system along with 400kV AC and ±500kV/600kV 2500Mw/6000MW have been planned to facilitate transfer of power from remotely located generation complexes to bulk load centres. This shall also facilitate strengthening of National Grid capacity to more than 37,000MW.
INDIA POWER TRANSMISSION MARKET MARKET SEGMENTATION
India Power Transmission market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
By Installation Type
- Single Phase AC
- Two Phase AC
- Three Phase AC
- DC Power System
- Residential Application
- Commercial Application
- Industrial Application
- Military Application
- High-Capacity User Application
By Transmission Capacity Type
- 440 KV
- 600 KV
- 765 KV
By Regional Classification
- Western Region – India
- Eastern Region – India
- Southern Region – India
- Northern Region – India
RECENT INDIA POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS
The future of electrical power transmission is of major importance in the country, as it has been undergoing a large-scale deployment in the electrical transmission lines alongside a possible upgradation in the conveyance being adopted for transfer of electric power from the transmission stagnations.
To meet the growing power demand of various regions, power transfer capacity of the inter-regional links is being enhanced continuously. key technological requirements for development of future power system are upgrading/uprating of existing transmission system, technology suitable for bulk power transfer over long distances like high capacity EHV/UHV AC system, HVDC system, compact tower/substation, mitigating devices to address high short circuit level, intelligent grid are being utilised and integrated within the country.
The power establishments have designed & developed multi circuit towers (4 Circuits on one tower with twin conductors) in-house and the same are implemented in many transmission systems, which are passing through forest and RoW congested areas.
This has effectively reduced the ROW to half and thereby saving in cutting of trees and impact on the environment. Typically for 400 kV Multi circuit lines, there has been extensive usage of four(4) conductors per phase in place of conventional twins to increase the power carrying capacity to two times through increase in current. This methodology has tremendous potential in the sub-transmission system in urban/city areas.
In order to increase the load ability of lines, development of HSIL technology is gaining momentum. By suitably spacing the bundle conductor, surge impedance can be reduced. In special areas, compact towers like delta configuration, narrow based tower etc. which reduce the space occupied by the tower base are being used.
In this direction, 765kV tower with delta configuration has been designed and implemented, which reduces the Right-of-Way requirement of 765kV lines from 85m to 64m (approx. 33% less) resulting in forest & environmental conservation.
Maximum temperature limit of the Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced(ACSR) conductors is about 100°C and it may not be possible to go beyond this limit as galvanization of the wire would be tampered and secondly there may be a creep in the conductor. However, in special situations we can use high temperature endurance conductors which can withstand temperatures up to 230°C like Invar. This has been majorly helping the transmission lines in the recent days within the country.
Indian private sector has been the major and new brand marking players in the Indian industry of electrical power transmission as they have been able to bring the required amounts of technological improvements alongside the operating public sectors. The Private players have been involved in construction of various transmission lines within the country on a large-scale occupancy basis and operating alongside the public players as well.
India is the world’s third-largest producer and third-largest consumer of electricity. The national electric grid in India has an installed capacity of 370.106 GW with the Renewable power plants, which also include large hydroelectric plants, constitute a considerable share of India’s total installed capacity.
Adani Transmission has been one of the largest power transmission companies in the private sector contributing to the advancement and technological improvement in the sector. ATL owns and operates various High voltage AC transmission lines and substations of 132kV, 220kV, 400kV, 765kV voltage level and also High Voltage DC transmission lines and substations of +/- 500kV voltage level. Today, ATL has a portfolio of more than 17,200 km of transmission lines and around 30,000 MVA of power transformation capacity.
Adani Transmission has recently integrated the Automatic power factor correction system, which helped in increasing the power factor of the auxiliary supply system from 0.76 to unity. It cut down the auxiliary power consumption and led to considerable savings in auxiliary power expenses.
L&T’s Power Transmission & Distribution (PT&D) business vertical is a powerful player that offers integrated solutions and end-to-end services ranging from design, manufacture, supply, and construction to commissioning in the field of overhead high voltage transmission lines, substations and distribution projects including railway electrification and project electrification in the domestic and international markets. It has been actively involved in bringing up the renewable energy-based compliance and better integrated grid connectivity in the country.