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The bulk transportation of electrical energy from a producing facility, such as a power station or power plant, to an electrical substation, where voltage is changed and transmitted to consumers or other substations, is referred to as electrical power transmission.
T&D technologies comprise components used to transfer and distribute power from generating sites to end customers.
The interconnecting lines that allow the transportation of electrical energy are known as a transmission network, and they together comprise an electrical power transmission system, or the power grid as it is more frequently called. This step of main transmission entails the transfer of a considerable amount of data.
Underground cables are also employed in some nations when transmission takes place over a lesser distance.
Historically, the costs of installing, operating, and maintaining the transmission and distribution system accounted for roughly two-thirds of the total costs of producing and delivering electricity to residential-commercial customers and more than one-third of the total costs of supplying electricity to large industrial customers.
Electric power is transmitted and distributed from the point of generation to the point of ultimate consumption via the transmission and distribution system. It must have the capacity to fulfil the peak demand of the area it serves while also meeting local energy demand needs
Transmission lines transport electricity from producing units to demand network load centers. Various lines may have different maximum voltage ratings; for example, one line may be rated at 230 kilovolts, while another may be rated at 765 kilovolts.
As a result, power transmission serves as an important linking and cumulative system in which power distribution and connectivity are formed as per the end user’s requirements, and a particular attention is given in order to achieve the needed step up and step-down requirements at the site.
Transmission of Electrical Power Systems engineering, in addition to distribution plan evaluation, arranging, and configuration, play an important role in the specialist administration, improvement, and acquisition of complicated power and vitality innovation systems.
In the past, India has been concerned about a shortage of energy transmission despite the fact that it was capable of supplying the requisite amounts of electricity to the country.
The main reason for the absence was the lack of a sufficient degree of development plan being placed into effect for electric power transmission.
Most refrigerators, air conditioners, pumps, and industrial gear in the country now utilise AC power, but most computers and digital devices use DC power.
AC power has the advantage of being easy to convert among voltages and of being able to be generated and utilized by brushless machinery.
There have been different devices used to induce the requisite power voltage diversion; however, devices utilizing solid state technology are frequently more expensive than their traditional equivalents, therefore AC power continues in popular usage.
In India, electricity is a concurrent issue, which means that both the national and state governments are responsible for its development.
The central generation utilities include NTPC, NHPC, THDC, NEEPCO, SJVNL, NLC, and so on, whereas the central transmission utility is POWERGRID. At the state level, each state has its own GENCO and Transco.
The backbone transmission system in India consists primarily of a 400 kV AC network and a 765 KV AC network that spans a large area. The current transmission system is being installed in India to suit both firm transmission demands and Open Access regulations.
Long-term Access (LTA) provides the necessary transmission system strengthening for future generation increases, while Short-Term Open Access (STOA) enables enhanced real-time trading in power by exploiting the inherent margins allowed for required redundancies as per planning requirements.
To address environmental and other capacitance concerns, high-capacity transmission corridors consisting of 765kV AC and 800kV 6000 MW HVDC systems, as well as 400kV AC and 500kV/600kV 2500Mw/6000MW, have been planned to facilitate power transfer from remotely located generation complexes to bulk load centres. This will also help to increase the National Grid’s capacity.
India Power Transmission market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The future of transmitting power in the country is critical, as it has been through a large-scale deployment in the power transmission lines, as well as a prospective upgrade in the conveyance used for transferring electric power from transmission stagnations.
Power companies have constructed and developed multi-circuit towers (4 circuits on one tower with twin conductors) in-house, which are used in many transmission networks that travel through forested and RoW-congested areas.
This essentially decreased the ROW in half, resulting in less tree chopping and less environmental damage. Typically, for 400 kV Multi circuit lines, four(4) conductors per phase have been widely used in place of standard twins to enhance the power carrying capacity to two times through an increase in current. This approach has enormous promise in urban/city sub-transmission systems.
The development of HSIL technology is gaining traction in order to boost the load capacity of lines. Surge impedance can be minimised by properly spacing the bundle conductor.
Compact towers, such as delta configurations and narrow-based towers, are utilised in particular regions to limit the space consumed by the tower base.
In order to achieve this goal, a 765kV tower with a delta configuration was designed and erected, lowering the Right-of-Way demand of 765kV lines from 85m to 64m (approximately 33% less), resulting in forest and ecological conservation.
The maximum temperature limit of Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) conductors is around 100°C, and it may not be able to exceed this limit because galvanic corrosion of the wire would be tampering, and secondly, there may be creep in the conductor.
In certain cases, however, we can utilize high temperature endurance conductors, such as Invar, which can resist temperatures of up to 230°C. This has greatly aided transmission lines around the country in recent days.
The Indian private sector has been the primary and new brand-marking participant in the Indian electrical power transmission business, since they have been able to bring the essential levels of technological advancements alongside the functioning public sectors.
Private players have been involved in the development of different transmission lines around the nation on a large-scale occupancy basis, working with public players.
India is both the world’s third-largest producer and user of electricity. The national electric system in India has an installed capacity of 370.106 GW, with renewable power facilities, including big hydropower dams, constituting a conglomerate.
Adani Transmission is one of the major power transmission firms in the private sector, contributing to the sector’s progress and technical innovation.
ATL owns and operates high voltage AC transmission lines and substations with voltage levels of 132kV, 220kV, 400kV, and 765kV, as well as high voltage DC transmission lines and substations with voltage levels of +/- 500kV.
ATL presently has over 17,200 km of transmission system and over 30,000 MVA of power transformation equipment in its portfolio.
It recently implemented an automatic power factor adjustment system, which assisted in raising the power factor of the auxiliary supply system from 0.76 to unity.
The Power Transmission & Distribution (PT&D) business vertical of L&T is a strong player in both domestic and international markets, offering integrated solutions and end-to-end services ranging from design, manufacture, supply, and construction to commissioning in the field of overhead high – voltage transmission, substations, and distribution projects, including railway electricity and construction supply of electricity.
It has been actively involved in increasing renewable energy compliance and improving integrated grid connection throughout the country.
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