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Most all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles use lithium-ion batteries; hybrid vehicles often use nickel-metal hydride; and newer materials are being produced, such as lithium polymer and lithium iron phosphate, with more on the horizon, to challenge those in widespread use.
In lithium-ion batteries, the positive electrode is formed of a metal oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, while the electrolyte is a lithium salt dissolved in an organic solvent. The negative electrode is made of graphite, a type of carbon.
The energy of the battery is produced by the movement of lithium ions between the electrodes. Although lithium-ion batteries are known to be small and light, they deteriorate quickly over time.
The advantages of lithium-ion batteries with silicon anodes over carbon anodes include higher energy density per unit mass in comparison to other batteries, an increase in capacity of up to 40%, and increased lifespan.
In addition, the company touts lighter design options appropriate for hybrid vehicles and lower manufacturing costs in comparison to alternative materials.
Each battery material has advantages and disadvantages of its own. A lithium iron phosphate battery uses lithium-ion chemistry but with an iron phosphate cathode so that, when compared to other lithium-ion battery types, it offers superior heat and chemical stability without the risk of fire but with lower energy density.
Nickel-metal-hydride batteries are moderately priced but have a lower power density than other batteries.
The Indonesia EV Chemicals market accounted for $XX Billion in 2021 and is anticipated to reach $XX Billion by 2026, registering a CAGR of XX% from 2022 to 2027.
According to China’s Tsingshan Holding Group, production of nickel matte, an intermediary nickel product that may be converted into chemicals for EV batteries, has begun in Indonesia.
An alternative to the high-pressure acid leach (HPAL) method, which is also utilised in Indonesia, is the production of matte using nickel pig iron (NPI), nickel sulphate, and stainless steel as the starting material.
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