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By utilising cutting-edge oxidation methods, refractory wastewater treatment has significantly advanced in recent years (AOPs). The production of hydroxyl radicals (OH), which are produced often by AOPs and have a considerable oxidising capacity (E0 = 2.8 V), is one of their shared characteristics. The Fenton process, a traditional AOP, uses the interaction between Fe2+ and H2O2 to produce OH.
While the Fenton process is capable of oxidising a wide range of organic materials and even destroying them to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and inorganic salts, it is difficult to recycle the catalyst (Fe2+), which results in the production of sludge containing Fe ions.
Sludge treatment is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive in terms of materials and labour costs. In order to apply a novel solid catalyst in heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions, research is required.
The Global Oxidation catalyst for organic wastewater treatment market accounted for $XX Billion in 2021 and is anticipated to reach $XX Billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of XX% from 2022 to 2030.
The efficacy of acid-modified coal fly ash (CFA) was evaluated for use as a catalyst in a Fenton-like process for the treatment of wastewater containing p-nitrophenol (p-NP). The findings demonstrate that coal fly ash (HFA) treated with HNO3 has a higher catalytic ability (96.6 percent p-NP removal rate) than CFA modified with other acids (92 percent p-NP removal rate) (HCl, H2SO4, and H3PO4). When compared to the amount removed by the catalytic oxidation process, the removal rate of the p-NP by the adsorption of HFA is less than 2.96 percent, which can be considered inconsequential. A 98 percent p-NP elimination rate is seen when the ideal experimental conditions are met (reaction time = 60 min, CH2O2 = 170 mg L1, CHFA = 10.0 g L1, pH = 2.0, mixing speed = 150 rpm, and temperature = 25 °C).
HFA reacts quickly to temperature changes, and higher temperatures are preferred (9.3% and 98.7% of the p-NP were eliminated at 25 and 50 °C, respectively, at 5 min). HFA demonstrates exceptional catalytic stability and reusability by being reused nine times with >91% of the p-NP removal rate.
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