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On the periodic table of elements, the chemical element ruthenium is denoted by the letter Ru. The Ru atomic number, or how many protons there are in each atom, is 44, and its relative atomic mass, or how many protons plus neutrons there are in each atom, is 101.07.
With an estimated abundance of 0.001 parts per million in the earth’s crust, ruthenium is a very uncommon element in nature.
Typically, it can be found in particular minerals or in pure elemental form with other metal elements like platinum and iridium. The areas where this element is found and mined are in South Africa, North and South American continents.
The Global Ruthenium market accounted for $XX Billion in 2021 and is anticipated to reach $XX Billion by 2030, registering a CAGR of XX% from 2022 to 2030.
The creation of continuous-flow reactors has recently gotten more and more attention from the synthetic community.
Additionally, advancements in mass/heat transfer and the accurate control of reaction parameters have made the flow setup an appealing alternative to batch reactors in both academia and industry, enabling secure and simple scaling-up of synthetic processes.
Even though batch reactors and semi batch reactors are still used by the bulk of the pharmaceutical industry, many are incorporating flow technology due to its simpler maintenance requirements and reduced dangers.
Furthermore, the amount of ruthenium contamination in the finished product can be significantly decreased by including a soluble metal scavenger in the following stage within the flow system (to less than 5 ppm).
By modifying the tubing size and flow rate appropriately, an upscale process involving a 24 h continuous-flow reaction for more than 60 g of a Sildenafil analogue was accomplished in a continuous-flow manner, demonstrating the method’s suitability for industrial use.
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