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Buses are the workhorses of America’s transportation system, carrying millions of Americans of all ages to school, work, shopping, recreation, and other places they need to go. Buses travel on city streets and rural roads, serving every kind of community – and delivering benefits across the country.
Energy savings and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases aren’t the only benefits of buses. Buses provide a critical form of transportation to those who cannot or do not wish to drive – including children, the elderly and disabled people.
Air pollution from buses is a particular threat since buses transport large numbers of people and make many trips through densely populated areas. There are a number of ways that people are exposed to dangerous pollution from buses. This has brought upon the much-required computations of EV adoptions and public transportation integration into the EVs sector of mobility.
The market for electric buses is changing rapidly as technology improves and prices continue to fall. While EBs still suffer from increased vehicle kerb weight and higher total costs of ownership, ongoing technology development and increased production volumes should reduce these obstacles in coming years.
Today, electric buses hold a clear advantage over DBs in several performance categories, particularly the reduction (or elimination) of tailpipe and GHG emissions. Electric buses may also deliver benefits in terms of energy efficiency, environmental impact, passenger comfort, and integration with renewable energy sources.
Over recent years, the uptake of electric buses into public transport networks has been slow but increasing electric buses made up 6% of new heavy-duty global bus purchases in 2012, with 5% CNG and LNG purchases, and 89% DBs and other buses.
Electrifying buses has also been an important first step towards broader adoption of heavy-duty electric vehicles, like trucks. While buses themselves account for a relatively small percentage of vehicle emissions, heavy duty vehicles as a whole are responsible for over a quarter of climate emissions from on-road transportation in the U.S.
The Electrification has recently been focussing upon the School Buses considering the high presence in the US and a potential efficiency integration market through EV Adoption. Electric school buses today have ranges long enough to cover most school bus routes. For instance, Blue Bird has come out with two electric school buses, one small and one large, both of which can drive 100 miles on one charge.
Electric buses require less maintenance than other types of alternative-fuel buses, in part because they have 30 percent fewer parts than diesel buses and no exhaust systems. Recent advances in the range capabilities of transit buses make them an increasingly feasible option for transit agencies. Hyundai’s new electric bus can travel 180 miles on a single charge, New Flyer has a bus with a 200-mile range, and Proterra’s electric bus models can travel 200 to 350 miles.
The US Electric Bus Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
The three main components of a BEB are bus configuration, battery storage system, and charging infrastructure (also known as electric vehicle supply equipment or EVSE). BEB deployment decisions on these components are tightly interwoven. Battery sizing and charging strategy selections influence each other, as the size of the battery depends on the technology of the charging system.
Part-time electric buses may be delivered using full hybrid technology with no operational limitations. As a result, it is critical in the transition to entirely electric public transportation. As a technically mature technology, it may be enhanced further by connection and geofencing to improve the environmental and social credentials of complete hybrid buses.
Ultracapacitors can be used in hybrid systems as the energy storage system alongside an ICE or a fuel cell, and they are often desirable for this purpose as they charge quickly. However, they can also be used as the sole source of on-board energy, and can be recharged at charging stations, similar to opportunity BEBs. Operational buses that use ultracapacitors as their sole energy-source recharge regularly throughout a route. The common charging mechanism involves a boom (pantograph) on the roof of the bus which connects with fixed catenary wires positioned above bus stops.
The US has been part of a much larger Electric buses mobilization as part of public based adoption systems in the country as required for better adoption rates. The use of battery electric bus (BEBs) fleets is becoming more attractive to cities seeking to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. While BEB fleets may provide benefits such as lower fuel and maintenance costs, improved performance, lower emissions, and energy security, many challenges need to be overcome to support BEB deployment.
Proterra has been one of the leading contenders and bus manufacturers in the country with more technological integration being implemented at an enhanced rate in the country. Proterra ZX5 bus enables transit agencies to significantly reduce operating costs while delivering clean, quiet transportation to local communities across North America. It can operate upon the technological intervention of up to 329 miles on a single charge. The ZX5 features faster acceleration, industry-leading gradeability, and the most battery storage on any 40-foot electric bus.
Nova Buses has been a long-term subsidiary requirement of Volvo Buses integrated into the better part of implementing the EV buses into action in the country. The Nova Bus FSe charges in less than 6 minutes. The e-bus model was the first electric bus in the industry to receive a passing score for a full test at Altoona in June 2018. The LFSe is a 100% electric heavy-duty transit bus, based on the proven LFS platform, and integrates powerful electric propulsion technology optimized for harsh operating conditions. The Bus has been integrated with Volvo High Voltage Li ion Batteries for better BMS control and monitoring systems.
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