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A transition to an electric bus fleet demands knowledge of the technology. The architecture of an electric bus and the infrastructure required are determined by the application scenarios.
The size of the battery is determined by the driving cycle, topographical factors, and other operational parameters. The preferred battery system is determined by the vehicle’s operating circumstances. The price is decided by the bus as well as the battery size, type, and carrying capacity.
Electric buses are especially appealing since they help to minimise local air pollution. Globally, urban air quality is gaining attention, and some international cities are aiming to prohibit diesel cars from inner-city roadways during the next decade.
Even modern, efficient diesel engines release hazardous pollutants including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10).
These pollutants are especially problematic in densely populated metropolitan areas with a large number of walkers and bikers, which are typical of the conditions under which buses run.
Alternative bus powertrains that decrease or eliminate the need for a diesel engine while keeping the benefits of buses are gaining popularity, particularly in congested metropolitan contexts.
The benefits of electric buses are being recognised in regulations being enacted in a number of major cities throughout the world. The mayor of London recently stated that no new diesel buses would be acquired for its inner-city routes beginning in 2018.
London now operates three entirely electric bus routes, seventy-one zero-emission buses, and has bought twenty hydrogen fuel cell buses (as part of a joint EU-funded project).
Hybrid electric, fuel cell electric, and full battery electric buses are now in use in a number of public transportation networks worldwide.
Many public transportation authorities are eager to introduce zero-emission electric buses. However, the transition from diesel to electric bus systems creates a wide design area that appears to be prohibitive to a methodical decision-making process.
China is the world’s biggest electric bus market at present with over 61k units sold in 2020. To know more about it read our report.
Transportation accounts for almost one-quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, owing to the fact that more than 90% of transportation fuel is petroleum-based.
In addition, vehicles, trucks, and buses emit unpleasant or hazardous compounds such as carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion, hydrocarbons from unburned fuel, nitrogen oxides from high combustion temperatures, and particulate matter.
As a result, public transportation agencies are very interested in implementing zero-emission buses. However, replacing today’s diesel bus fleets has various obstacles. First, aside from catenary-based trolleybus systems, electric buses have just lately been available.
Bus technology evolves in tandem with other technologies; buses are always improving in terms of energy economy, passenger comfort, and air pollution reduction.
Some of the advancements in the Global Electric Bus market have been spurred by regulatory criteria for urban passenger buses. However, there appears to be a greater community awareness of the benefits of clean, pleasant buses.
The objective of this article is to provide an overview of current electric bus technology, given the importance of buses in New Zealand’s public transportation networks, as well as growing technology and community expectations.
As a result, the current Global Electric bus market production viability includes three key types of electric buses: the hybrid electric bus (HEB), the fuel cell electric bus (FCEB), and the battery electric bus (BEB).
The global Electric Bus Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
Today, urban buses are the first form of transportation where electrification is having a big influence. This movement is being pushed largely by a growing awareness of hazardous air pollution in our cities caused by internal combustion engines, and it is being backed up by compelling economic, comfort, and noise benefits.
Urban buses are expected to be the first form of transportation to achieve zero emissions as a result of electrification.
Overnight charging is a modern technology that has been adopted as part of the global electric bus charging criteria. It involves battery electric buses being charged statically from the grid at the depot using mechanical and electrical equipment, primarily overnight.
They have huge battery capacity (usually >200 kWh), allowing them a range of 100 to 250 km and may be recharged at the depot using slow chargers (typically 40-120kW).
When the car is not in use, the engine recharges the battery. At greater loads, the energy from the battery can be used to improve performance.
Because a mild hybrid has a relatively tiny battery when compared to other hybrid kinds, its performance improvement is extremely minor.
A prospective opportunity charging technology that incorporates battery electric buses to save battery weight by recharging at passenger stopping spots or at the bus terminal.
They have a medium battery capacity (generally 50-150 kWh) and need high-power charging, which is often accomplished using overhead pantographs.
Recent technological advancements in the operational capability of electric buses have been made in order to increase their viability and operational efficiency through varied multidisciplinary integration of IC Engine and Electric Motor based EV Technology in order to form a hybrid operational component.
The Mild hybrid is the most modern hybrid technology available in operating EV Buses in the Global Electric Buses industry. The least electrified form of HEV is a mild hybrid. A mild HEV has an ICE with an enlarged starting motor that also serves as a generator.
ADL (Alexander Dennis Limited), which is part of the NFI Group, which also includes New Flyer, has announced the launch of North America’s first zero-emission, three-axle double-deck bus.
The bus is propelled by two hub motors on an electric portal axle. To maximise weight distribution, the drive units are mounted on the third axle, while the batteries are integrated into the chassis and back of the vehicle.
The bus is equipped with a CCS Combo DC fast charging port for charging, although other options are available.
A heat pump, which efficiently delivers both heating and cooling depending on the weather, is critical in the case of electric buses.
Electric buses are becoming more popular in the global electric bus industry, which aids in the creation of a fossil-fuel-free society and the reduction of emissions.
Earlier bus system studies revealed the need for more research into societal expenses, total cost of ownership, energy usage on an annual basis to account for seasonal fluctuations, and noise during acceleration.
Proterra has been involved in the production of electric buses, with the ZX5 being the most recent and technologically advanced product.
It employs the same technology that broke the world record for longest EV range and features faster acceleration, industry-leading gradeability, and the most battery storage on any 40-foot electric bus, with a range of more than 300 miles per charge. It has a maximum on-board energy capacity of 675 kWh.
Through its engagement in the electrification of collection buses and school buses, the Lion electric firm runs and technologically integrates the Global electric bus market.
The eLionC is North America’s only purpose-designed and built 100 percent electric Type-C school bus. The chassis and van were developed to maximise the performance of an all-electric bus.
It has a range of 100 to 250 km per charge thanks to an innovative traction chain that does not require transmission. The eLionChas has as much power, if not more, than diesel engines in the school transportation business, thanks to an electric motor capable of generating up to 250 kW, 2,500 Nm (about 335 hp, 1,800 lb / ft).
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