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The hydrocarbons industry is critical to the country’s economic progress. It is vital to develop a long-term policy for the hydrocarbons industry in order to satisfy the country’s future demands.
LNG, or liquefied natural gas, is a colourless, odourless, non corrosive, nontoxic liquid generated when natural gas is cooled to around -260 degrees Fahrenheit.
This reduces the bulk by around 600 times, making the resource easier to store and carry by sea freight. LNG cannot be held under pressure, is neither explosive or combustible in its liquid condition, and cannot be discharged quickly enough to generate the overpressures associated with explosions.
Natural gas is a gas combination mostly composed of hydrocarbons. However, inert gas nitrogen is typically present in raw natural gas.
Nitrogen reduces the heating value of natural gas while increasing transportation quantities. Nitrogen pipeline requirements vary. There are hundreds of natural gas liquefaction techniques, but only a few are in operation.
The majority of processes in use are not patented, with new processes being patented in the majority of cases. The most often utilised liquefaction processes are those designed by Air Products and Chemical Inc., ConocoPhillips, and Linde, with capacities ranging from two to eight MTPA.
Newer processes tend to require less equipment in the cycle and have a higher capacity of five to nine MTPA. Because of the decreased installation costs and improved capacity, the new procedures are particularly feasible in industry.
Natural gas is one of the world’s most essential energy sources. This gas now provides nearly 30% of the world’s energy demands. The majority of it is delivered in gaseous form through a pipeline.
However, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Natural Gas Liquids (NGL), and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) have grown in importance in the global energy industry during the last two decades. Natural gas, particularly LNG, is predicted to play a critical role in the world’s energy mix.
To know more about US LNG Market, read our report
In recent years, popularity for liquefied natural gas in India has increased markedly due to increased availability, advancement of transmission and distribution system, savings from using natural gas instead of alternative fuels, the environmentally friendly characteristics of natural gas as a fuel, and the overwhelmingly positive economic history of supplying gas at affordable prices to end consumers.
The power and fertiliser sectors continue to be the two largest contributors to natural gas demand in India, accounting for more than 55 percent of total gas consumption.
India is divided into six major geographical natural gas markets: Northern, Western, Central, Southern, Eastern, and North-Eastern, with the Western and Northern markets now having the largest consumption owing to improved pipeline connection.
Natural gas supply is expected to expand in the future due to increased local gas production and imported LNG. However, because of a gradual decrease in gas, the predicted rise in domestic production is currently substantially smaller than early predictions.
Because India’s natural gas consumption has consistently outstripped supply for several years, the country is likely to rely more heavily on LNG imports and expand its natural gas import infrastructure.
Today, India’s natural gas sector is on the verge of rapid growth, fueled by rising demand for natural gas, increased exploration efforts under NELP, the integration of LNG import terminals on the West Coast, projected current and future LNG terminals, and the government’s initiatives toward the development of a country wide natural gas pipeline grid.
In general, India’s liquefied natural gas market has grown slowly in recent years. Significant infrastructure investment in LNG import and domestic gas transportation across India is anticipated over the next 5-6 years.
The existing projected investments, together with anticipated extra investments, would be adequate to fulfil the increased demand for gas from various consumer sectors.
LNG Traction-based Fuel is being improved and will be utilised in the Railways section of India operations in the near future. In terms of diesel traction, LNG provides a cutting-edge, yet financially realistic, answer.
The India LNG Market can be segmented into following categories for further analysis.
LNG has been underutilised in the nation owing to lower levels of LNG Exploration and extraction techniques, in which unpatented and poor efficiency-based technologies are employed as part of the country’s further establishment and refinement of natural gas.
Along with them, an elevated level of safety norms deviation has been seen among procedural institutions.
India has four operating LNG terminals in Dahej, Hazira, Kochi, and Dabhol, with a combined capacity of 25 million TPY but a current utilisation rate of 58 percent.
Low capacity utilisation can be attributed to a lack of supporting infrastructure,15 decreased R-LNG demand as a result of increased pricing, and limited pipeline connectivity between ports and demand centers.
Government policy initiatives targeted at increasing the use of stranded power plants4 and pooling local gas with regasified LNG (R-LNG) to make urea have coupled with decreased crude oil prices to improve India’s demand.
In order of increasing complexity and expense, the three primary methods employed in the nation for LNG usage and efficiency as part of integration inside big engines are Spark Ignition, Port-Injection Dual Fuel, and Late Cycle High Pressure Direct Injection.
Spiral Wound Heat exchangers are recent heat exchangers utilised in liquefaction technology for processing and refining the LNG component.
These heat exchangers are utilised in single-phase and two-phase applications and have a wide temperature and pressure range. They may handle a variety of streams based on the demands of the consumers. Hand pressures of up to 3625 psi are possible.
On the assumption that LNG spot prices would fall again next summer, India’s gas demand will continue to rise sharply in 2021.
According to James Waddell, senior global gas analyst at Energy Aspects, new city gas connections and the relaxation of mobility limitations would enhance compressed natural gas consumption.
GAIL and IOCL are part of the pipeline connection initiative, which is being implemented in the country on a constant basis and aids in interstate pipeline facilities. Some heavy-duty truck fleets are switching to LNG as their preferred fuel.
LNG enables for more energy to be stored in a smaller container onboard a vehicle. Using LNG and natural gas to fuel automobiles decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 30-40% while also saving money on vehicle maintenance.
The expansion of LNG infrastructure is critical if LNG is to meet rising demand and supplement local supply. Gas deposits and natural gas users are geographically separated, as they are in most regions of the world.
Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC) and an Indian company, the Adani Group, jointly own the Port of Mundra in Gujarat. The Indian Oil Corporation also has a port in Enmore, on India’s east coast, near Chennai.
Major regasification terminals are being built at all levels within the construction capacities. Elevated concentrations of CGD and PNG networks are being planned at various levels throughout the nation by IOAG, i.e.
Indian Oil Adani Gas Limited, with contributions from GAIL India Limited. This has boosted the country’s potential to improve its LNG pipelines to numerous states and other countries.
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