Published- Nov 2022
Number Of Pages -110
The steel industry is vital to the economic competitiveness of the United States. Steel market is expected to escalate during the forecasting period 2023-2030.
Steel serves as the backbone to automobiles, bridges, buildings, railroads and machinery and is an important component for national defence industry.
US is the third largest steel producer in the world, with nearly 5.4% share in the world crude steel production, as well as one of the leading steel consumers.
The industry has benefitted from soaring steel demand in the automotive, construction and oil & gas sectors. Additionally, the cost effective and highly efficient steel making technologies have worked as a catalyst and uplifted the US steel demand in the market.
Steel is primarily produced using one of two methods: Blast Furnace or Electric Arc Furnace. The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides. The first blast furnaces appeared in the 14th century and produced one ton per day.
The first electric arc furnaces (EAFs) appeared in the late 19th Century. The use of EAFs has expanded and now accounts for nearly 2/3 of steel production in the United States.
The EAF is different from the blast furnace as it produces steel by using an electrical current to melt scrap steel and/or direct reduced iron. The EAF uses scrap steel and electricity to produce molten steel.
Based on preliminary census bureau data, the AISI reported that the U.S. imported a total of 1888000 net tons of steel in February 2021, including 1424000 net tons of finished steel.
In the week ending on April 3, 2021, domestic raw steel production was 1766000 net tons while the capability utilization rate was 77.9%. The current week production represents a 15.7% increase compared to last year, according to AISI industry reports.
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The American steel industry operates with the lowest energy consumption per ton of steel in the world. The American steel industry has reduced its CO2 emissions per ton of steel shipped by 37 percent since 1990.
Steel prices were played with three-year lows during much of the second half of 2019 before four rounds of price hikes reversed that trend.
The construction and automotive sectors, the two major buyers in the US steel market, account for almost three-quarters of domestic steel consumption, according to American iron and steel institute (AISI) data. Construction accounts for 44% of steel shipments, according to AISI.
From August to September 2020, U.S. imports of steel decreased by 2.6%. After a peak steel prices in Q3 2018, U.S. domestic prices for hot rolled band increased from $572 per metric ton in June 2020 to around $789 in November and were up to about 39.2% from one year earlier. Cold rolled coil prices increased from $759 per metric ton in June to $973 in November.
According to data from world steel association reported that, for the month of January 2021, U.S. steel mills shipped 7,420,816 net tons which is a 5.3 percent increase from the 7,049,785 net tons shipped in the previous month, December 2020, and a 13.1 percent decrease from the 8,535,755 net tons shipped in January 2020.
U.S. steel production was 6.1 million metric tons in September 2020, up 9.9% from August. September 2020 production was done 12.3% compared to September 2019 production level.
The increase in the global automobile production is a major factor leading to the growth of the high strength steel market across the globe.
The use of high strength steels for manufacturing body panels of automobiles increases their fuel efficiency by reducing their weight by approximately 60%.
This, in turn, contributes to the growing demand for high strength steels from the automotive industry. The increasing demand for electric and hybrid vehicles across the globe is also expected to contribute towards the growth of the high strength steel market during the forecast period.
The construction industry across the globe is also witnessing growth in the commercial and residential sectors. Factors such as improved employment opportunities, increased per capita income of masses, and adoption of luxurious lifestyle by the middle-class population are expected to drive the growth of the construction industry across the globe.
This leads to the increased demand for high strength steels from the construction industry as high strength steels ensure reduced product thickness, enable improved toughness of products at low temperatures, and ensure their high-yield strengths. Moreover, these steels also have outstanding weldability.
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By bringing pig iron production to Gary Works, United States Steel Corporation has claimed that it is advancing its metallics strategy. Up to 500,000 tonnes of pig iron will be produced annually thanks to the roughly $60 million investment, which will also supply a vital raw material input for its electric arc furnaces (EAF).
Once finished, the Gary pig iron output is anticipated to provide approximately half of Big River Steel’s other ore-based metallics requirements, generate run-rate enterprise EBITDA benefits of over $30 million, and have an internal rate of return of more than 30%.
Low-cost iron ore is a significant competitive advantage for U. S. Steel. A major competitive differentiation for the expanding fleet of electric arc furnaces is the ability to control this crucial input in the steelmaking process.
An crucial first step in converting our low-cost iron ore advantage to our EAF footprint and boosting efficiency at Gary Works is investing in pig iron.
In addition to improving Big River Steel’s cost structure, the choice to self-fund pig iron production rather than contract it out is anticipated to generate value to Gary Works by increasing blast furnace efficiencies without diminishing Gary Works’ raw steel output.
Construction is anticipated to start in the first half of the year, and the permitting process is already under way.
As Massachusetts-based Boston Metal announced a $120 million investment from the second-largest steelmaker in the world, ArcelorMittal, along with cooperation from software behemoth Microsoft, the production of “green steel” came one step closer to becoming a reality.
With the additional funding, Boston Metal will help Brazil’s commercial manufacturing get off the ground and increase output at a prototype plant in Woburn, close to Boston. The business transforms iron ore into steel using renewable energy.
In Huntsville, Alabama, SCOA Subsidiary SteelSummit Holdings (SSH), Toyota Tsusho America, Inc. (TAI), and Southern Mobility Products unveiled Madison Metal Processing (MMP), a pioneering joint venture. Hot-rolled steel, cold-rolled steel, exposed and coated steel products, as well as blanking and warehousing steel goods, will be MMP’s areas of expertise.
This plant aims to process up to 5,000 tonnes of steel per month for Mazda Toyota Manufacturing, U.S.A., Inc. (MTMUS) as an automotive-blanking steel processing centre. Because Huntsville, also known as “Rocket City,” has a long history in the space sector, MTMUS’s first two auto production lines are named “Apollo” and “Discovery.”
For nearly 40 years, Sumitomo Corporation Group has provided flat roll goods exclusively to Mazda’s manufacturing facilities in Japan, China, Thailand, and Mexico through our regional service centres.
Together with Xcel Energy and EVRAZ North America, the largest solar energy company in the world, Lightsource bp, celebrated the dedication of its 300 megawatt Bighorn Solar project today.
Lightsource bp, a 50:50 joint venture between bp and Lightsource, presented the solar project that would support more than 1,000 employment at EVRAZ’s Pueblo steel mill, the first steel mill in the world to be powered primarily by solar energy, and help cut emissions.
With more than 750,000 solar panels covering virtually all of the plant’s annual electricity needs, it is the largest on-site solar installation in the US that is exclusively focused on a single customer. As a result, the mill will be able to create some of the greenest steel and steel products on the planet.
The company already reuses scrap metal to create new steel products, including some of the most environmentally friendly rail in the entire world.
United States Steel Corporation has announced the location of its next-generation highly sustainable and technologically advanced steel mill in Osceola, Arkansas, next to the company’s cutting-edge Big River Steel factory. The facility is designed to combine cutting-edge technologies to build a steel mill of the future that provides profitable solutions for our customers.
As the firm charts a bold course toward a more sustainable future, the new mill is meant to extend U. S. Steel’s customer benefits. Two advanced steelmaking electric arc furnaces (EAFs), a state-of-the-art endless casting and rolling line, and advanced finishing capabilities are scheduled to be included in the new optimised steel manufacturing facility.
The company’s operations will benefit significantly from this first application of endless casting and rolling technology in the United States, in terms of energy, efficiency, and capabilities.
A new partnership has been established by EQT Corporation, Equinor, GE Gas Power, Marathon Petroleum (including its affiliate MPLX), Mitsubishi Power, Shell Polymers, and U. S. Steel. This partnership will take the lead in decarbonizing the industrial base in the Northern Appalachian Region of the United States.
In Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, the alliance will collaborate with stakeholders to develop a shared vision for a low-carbon and hydrogen industrial hub that may serve as a national model for sustainable energy and production systems.
Implementing this industrial cluster and the related infrastructure development successfully might lead to the creation of thousands of new employment, the protection of existing ones, and considerable reductions in carbon dioxide emissions.
The hub concept will put an emphasis on hydrogen generation and use, as well as carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS).
New degrees of cross-border and cross-sector public-private partnerships will be necessary for this comprehensive, regional approach. The alliance is striving to create a network of direct collaboration between business, labour, academia, communities, government, research institutions, non-profits, and other groups in these initiatives.
The Northern Appalachian Region has a wealth of resources, including national laboratories and institutions of the highest calibre as well as a long history of industrial development with particular expertise in manufacturing, raw materials, and energy.
The highly qualified and experienced workforce in the area, along with a robust and expanding startup ecosystem, all support this. This business-led partnership and network has the expertise, reach, and connections to materialise this transformative potential.
The completion of its new non-grain oriented (NGO) electrical steel line will mark the beginning of production of United States Steel Corporation X’s new electrical steel product, InduX, at its Big River Steel site this summer. InduX is being launched by the corporation for the quickly expanding American electric car industry.
Electric vehicles (EV), generators, and transformers can all benefit from the magnetic qualities of InduX, an extremely broad, ultra-thin, and light electrical steel. In an EV, the motor efficiency improves with higher magnetic characteristics, increasing vehicle economy.
By manufacturing InduX steel here at home, U. S. Steel is significantly investing in American jobs and boosting the resilience of the local supply chain.
Despite the fact that this procedure has been used for centuries, modern operations use artificial intelligence, robotics, computer models, and remote-controlled gear to monitor and control conditions inside the furnace.
The time when workers manually checked conditions with handheld equipment while standing just feet away from molten metal is long gone.
New technology, creative labour agreements, and straightforward economies of scale have significantly reduced the amount of work required to produce a tonne of steel. Less people on the shop floor and safer operations result from fewer but larger furnaces.
In the United States, there are many more electric arc furnaces (EAFs) than blast furnaces (the global ratio is the opposite). Similar to blast furnaces, mini-mills have improved in efficiency thanks to advanced casting technology and clever manufacturing techniques. The usage of direct reduced iron (DRI) pellets or briquettes is one way to increase the product variety by switching the raw material.
The range of goods that could be manufactured in electric arc furnaces has been expanded thanks to the introduction of DRI, which supplied an iron ore-based metallic. Due to their superior chemistry, these materials diluted the residual elements typically present in the scrap supply.
Thanks to improvements in process control, product quality may now be predicted using sensors. This represents a significant advancement in effective and enhanced quality control thanks to the use of closed-loop technologies that automatically adapt to changes.
Molten oxide electrolysis is a new technique that was first developed at MIT with the goal of using electricity to separate the oxygen from iron ore and producing O2 as a byproduct rather than CO2. The task of commercializing this technology for the steel sector belongs to Boston Metal.
According to certain scientists, hydrogen presents one potential for a totally carbon dioxide-free method of producing steel. Coal is typically used in traditional blast furnaces to remove oxygen from iron ore, producing steel and CO2. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association, when hydrogen is used in place of coal for that operation, water (H2O) rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) is the byproduct.
Recent mergers and acquisitions in the U.S. steel industry have seen U.S. Steel Corporation acquire several domestic and international steel mills. U.S. Steel acquired Big River Steel based in Arkansas.
This acquisition will expand U.S. Steel’s presence in the flat-rolled steel production market. U.S. Steel also recently announced an agreement to acquire Cleveland-Cliffs. This acquisition is expected to make U.S. Steel the leading North American producer of carbon steel products.
The steel industry has also seen a substantial increase in joint ventures in recent years. Nucor Corporation and Kobe Steel USA announced the formation of a new joint venture, Nucor Yamato Steel, to manufacture and distribute steel products in the US and Canada.
In addition, POSCO America and Shinsho Corporation recently formed an alliance to increase their presence in the US steel market by forming joint ventures to produce and distribute steel products.
ArcelorMittal USA acquired a majority stake in NLMK USA, a Russian steel producer operating in the U.S, creating one of the largest steel manufacturers in the U.S. U.S. Steel announced the acquisition of SunCoke Energy, Inc., an Ohio-based energy and production company, as part of their strategy to become a leading integrated producer in North America.
Other notable acquisitions in the industry include Nucor’s purchase of Skyline Steel and Steel Dynamics’ acquisition of Severstal Columbus.
The U.S. steel industry produced a projected 91 billion U.S. dollars in 2020, a 12 percent slump from the 2019 production value which was over 100 billion, with about 51 companies operating in the raw steel production market in the country. One of the largest steel producers in the United States is the North-Carolina-based Nucor Corporation.
In the 2020 financial year, the steel producer recorded some 20 billion in revenue. In a global comparison of crude steel producers, Nucor was ranked fourteenth in 2020, producing around 25.49 million metric tons of crude steel. Other companies developing new technologies and lightweight steels as per the industry requirement to gain the demand in forecasting period 2022-2027 and reaching green steel production.
Cleveland-Cliffs Inc., originally Cliffs Natural Resources, is an organization with headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio, that focuses on the mining, beneficiation, and pelletization of iron ore as well as steel production, including stamping and tooling. It is North America’s biggest producer of flat-rolled steel.
For the second year in a row, General Motors awarded AK Steel the title of GM Supplier of the Year for Non Fabricated Steel. At the annual Ford World Excellence Awards, AK Steel also received a Smart Pillar Award from Ford for being a top-performing global supplier.
The company’s products are utilized in landing gear, shaft collars, safety wires, power generation goods, intervertebral disc arthroplasty, engine valves, and weldings. Carpenter Technology Corporation develops, manufactures, and distributes stainless steels and corrosion-resistant alloys.
American steel manufacturer Steel Dynamics, Inc., also referred to as “SDI,” is situated in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The corporation ranks as the third largest manufacturer of carbon steel products in the United States, with a steel production capacity of 13 million tonnes. In terms of profit margins and operating margin per tonne, it is one of the most profitable American steel producers.
NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH
New steel for electric vehicles has been introduced by U.S. Steel (X). For the quickly expanding American electric vehicle market, the company is releasing InduX.
Having all the magnetic qualities required for electric vehicles (EV), generators, and transformers, InduX is a very wide, ultra-thin, and light electrical steel. The more efficient the motor is in an EV, the greater mileage the vehicle will have.
By manufacturing InduX steel here at home, U. S. Steel is considerably boosting American employment opportunities and strengthening the resilience of the local supply chain. On the brand-new NGO electrical steel line that Big River Steel is building in Osceola, Arkansas, InduX steel will be produced.
The NGO line is presently under development and when finished, it will be able to produce up to 200,000 tonnes of InduX steel annually. The business previously stated that it is still confident in achieving solid earnings, as seen by the order book for its flat-rolled division, which signals better demand.
Additionally, the Mini Mill division of U.S. Steel has healthy order books. The cost structures of this sector are anticipated to improve as it is likely to compensate for the higher costs of metals acquired at the outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine war.
Due to solid pipe prices and order entries, its tubular division is also anticipated to produce sequential EBITDA increase in the first quarter. As a result of growing demand and competition in the European market, the company enjoyed improved market prices.
According to a statement from U.S. Steel Corp., the business constructed its newest steel mill near Osceola, Arkansas, not far from its current Big River Steel facility.
The announcement is made in the midst of a protracted supply chain crisis that has made it more challenging for manufacturers to obtain completed steel and a long-term tendency in local steel businesses towards expansion.
U.S. Steel intends to target the automotive, appliance, and construction end-markets with steel from the new mill, with a product mix of 40% cold-rolled steel, 30% hot-rolled steel, and 30% coated steel, according to a presentation made public by the firm.
New lines now being produced at the facility “will further advance U.S. Steel’s ability to respond to customers’ pressing supply chain needs to satisfy their own domestic manufacturing expansion.
According to a press release, the company expects to start construction on the expansion this quarter, with intentions to have the mill open for business. However, the release also notes that confirmation of the location depends on several completed agreements with important partners.
Upon completion of construction, U.S. Steel intends to submit a LEED certification application for the new mill, which it claims will be both technologically cutting-edge and environmentally responsible.
The “endless casting” technology that will be used in the micro mill, according to the U.S. Steel, will result in “significant energy, efficiency, and capability enhancements to the company’s operations.
” The mill will reportedly be the first in the US to employ infinite casting and rolling technology, according to U.S. Steel.They are redefining the future of steelmaking with this site already chosen and shovels at the ready.
In a company presentation, it was mentioned that the location was convenient for both suppliers and customers, had affordable electricity, and was eligible for government subsidies. The location offers docks on the Mississippi River, access to interstate trucking lanes, and railroads.
In three main product categories, including hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and corrosion-resistant flat-rolled goods where the steel has been melted at Big River Steel Works, United States Steel Corporation has announced environmental product declarations (EPDs).
On these essential products, the EPDs offer measurable, impartial, and audited environmental data.
These improved disclosures, which are good for five years, give U. S. Steel customers have unbiased knowledge about the effects and emissions of steel products throughout their life cycles, empowering them to choose more environmentally friendly materials for their businesses.
These EPDs are an advancement in the process of calculating the carbon footprint of their products.
They are overjoyed that they were able to obtain EPDs for the three main flat-rolled steel coil products, which represent all of the materials melted at Big River Steel Works.For consumers who want to learn more about the environmental effect of their supply chains, this advancement unlocks a significant amount of value.
Customers are better equipped to make wiser and more sustainable decisions when they provide clear and data-backed validation of offerings. Sustainable steel is crucial to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and supports vital green technologies, as stated in the company’s Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Report.
In order to create a more eco-friendly globe that is Best for All, U. S. Steel is committed to decreasing emissions in significant ways and delivering lucrative, distinctive, and sustainable steel solutions.
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